Table 1.

Characteristics at death of patients on dialysis, compared by race-ethnicity (n=1,098,384)

CharacteristicSubgroupAllMinority
No 56.4%Yes 43.6%
All M 43.6%AA 27.6%NA 1.0%A 3.2%H 11.7%
Place of deathHospital63.258.569.269.863.1a69.168.3
Home19.621.517.016.122.417.618.6
Nursing home7.48.85.55.96.35.34.8
Other9.911.18.38.38.28.08.3
Hospice14.718.110.39.511.110.612.1
Hospice locationNonhospital, nonhome36.637.235.137.729.332.731.2
Hospital29.227.134.236.929.733.929.8
Home34.235.730.725.541.0b33.439.0
Dialysis discontinuation24.931.216.715.323.318.418.8
Reason discontinuedcDialysis access failurec1.10.9d1.5d1.8a1.4a1.3a1.2
Failure to thrivec34.836.231.532.335.3a34.328.8
Acute medical complicationc24.924.326.526.432.526.526.0
Otherc39.138.640.539.630.837.944.1
Era2000–200646.747.046.548.048.3d43.243.6
2007–201453.353.053.552.051.7d56.856.4
Age, yr0–393.02.04.35.04.52.13.4
40–6431.825.739.641.946.127.936.9
65–7042.343.940.238.540.343.843.3
≥8022.928.415.814.69.126.216.4
Female sex45.742.449.951.853.247.346.1d
RegionNortheast18.621.714.615.93.812.812.5
Midwest22.127.215.318.820.57.57.7
South40.734.648.957.626.612.639.1
West18.516.521.27.749.167.140.8
County typeMetro, ≥1 million52.446.260.760.419.971.062.5
Metro, 0.25–0.99 million19.620.418.517.415.120.7a21.1
Metro, <0.25 million9.911.57.88.311.42.97.6
Nonmetro18.121.913.013.953.65.38.7
County Gini index≤0.43026.034.315.114.730.324.012.1
0.431–0.45324.928.220.519.437.125.5d20.4
0.454–0.48124.623.226.527.920.122.024.9a
>0.48124.514.337.938.012.528.542.5
Cause of ESKDDiabetes46.943.052.044.974.755.365.9
Hypertension28.728.329.235.49.525.017.8
GN8.28.87.47.77.6b9.16.2
Cystic disease1.62.10.90.80.71.01.0
Other14.617.810.511.27.59.69.2
RRT, yr<129.133.523.523.218.623.324.6
1–2.927.729.525.324.525.727.2b26.9
3–4.917.516.818.317.719.619.419.4
≥525.720.232.834.636.130.129.1
Type of dialysisCenter hemodialysis92.491.094.394.793.692.4a94.1
Home hemodialysis1.31.51.21.3a0.60.90.9
Peritoneal dialysis6.27.64.54.05.8a6.75.0
Prior transplant6.26.55.86.06.7b5.25.3
For-profit dialysis unit79.577.482.381.767.976.486.8
Dialysis unit affiliationHospital-based11.413.19.39.318.612.97.4
Independent18.618.7b18.5b17.015.923.320.9
Chain, 2–99 units4.24.14.54.11.98.94.5
Chain, ≥100 units65.764.167.769.763.555.067.2
InsuranceMedicare parts A and B74.676.472.275.378.060.767.8
Medicare 1°, other2.01.33.02.24.27.83.4
Medicare 2°, EGHP3.23.82.32.42.42.81.9
Medicare 2°, other0.90.9d0.9d1.00.8a0.40.7
Health maintenance organization11.312.110.38.32.615.514.3
90-d wait for Medicare0.20.2d0.2d0.2d0.1a0.2a0.2a
Other7.85.311.110.611.912.511.6
Conditions, last 28 dMyocardial infarction6.96.9b7.0b6.56.8a9.57.8
Cardiac failure24.626.522.021.618.022.223.3
Stroke5.04.45.75.64.8a6.65.8
Malignancy14.514.914.014.4a12.713.213.1
Pneumonia12.012a12.0a11.512.1a14.013.0
Septicemia0.40.50.40.40.6b0.4a0.4d
Number of conditions054.353.655.355.759.653.7a54.3a
130.630.5b30.7b30.9d27.930.0b30.7a
≥215.115.914.013.512.516.415.0a
Cause of deathCardiovascular39.638.740.740.536.744.140.8
Infection10.99.912.311.913.011.513.4
Malignancy2.82.92.52.8a2.02.42.1
Withdrawal of dialysis7.49.74.53.97.0b5.45.5
Other39.338.839.940.941.336.538.3
  • Parameter estimates are column percentages. P values <0.001 (versus non-Hispanic white) for all comparisons by race/ethnicity, unless otherwise indicated. Northeast (states): Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Missing data ≥0.1%: race-ethnicity, 0.2%; county type, 1.6%; dialysis chain affiliation, 1.4%. “Conditions” refer to patients with Medicare parts A and B and hospitalizations containing the following International Classification of Disease Clinical Modification–9 codes in the last 28 d of life: myocardial infarction—410xx (1≤x≤9); cardiac failure—428xx; stroke—434xx; malignancy—140xx to 209xx; pneumonia—480xx to 488xx; septicemia—38xxx. M, Minority; AA, black; NA, Native American, A, Asian; H, Hispanic; EGHP, employer group health plan.

  • a NS, P value ≥0.05.

  • b 0.01≤P value <0.05.

  • c Column percentages for reason for withdrawal of dialysis have the subgroup who withdrew from dialysis as denominator.

  • d 0.001≤P value <0.01.