Table 2.

Unadjusted associations of primary outcome (withdrawal of dialysis and death in either a nonhospital or hospice setting), and of component outcomes in patients on dialysis dying between 2000 and 2014 (n=1,098,384)

CharacteristicSubgroupPrimary Outcome (17.5%)Dialysis Discontinuation (24.9%)Hospice (14.7%)Nonhospital (36.8%)
MinorityNo22.631.218.146.4
Yes10.916.710.334.4
Non-Hispanic black9.815.39.533.7
Non-Hispanic Native American14.223.311.140.2a
Non-Hispanic Asian11.218.410.634.5
Hispanic13.018.812.135.3
Era2000–200613.523.15.935.8
2007–201420.926.522.445.8
Age, yr0–395.611.65.332.3
40–6410.116.49.636.3
65–7018.326.215.241.1b
≥8027.735.922.049.2
SexMale16.623.414.542.2
Female18.526.714.939.9
RegionNortheast16.324.6c12.438.0
Midwest21.328.717.246.5
South15.823.114.439.2
West18.926.115.743.4
County typeMetro, ≥1 million15.722.114.239.3
Metro, 0.25–0.99 million20.028.516.643.5
Metro, <0.25 million20.930.416.144.0
Nonmetro20.128.615.644.6
County Gini index≤0.43022.030.417.445.9
0.431–0.45319.627.716.343.3
0.454–0.48117.925.615.341.5
>0.48110.916.210.434.5
Cause of ESKDDiabetes15.923.113.340.3
Hypertension18.525.615.641.5
GN15.623.513.339.4
Cystic disease16.424.2a14.6b42.8
Other21.630.018.143.9
Years of RRT<119.828.015.341.6
1–2.918.325.815.042.0
3–4.917.3a24.514.9c41.2b
≥514.020.613.639.7
Type of dialysisCenter hemodialysis17.725.214.841.1
Home hemodialysis12.116.612.739.8c
Peritoneal dialysis14.522.414.042.7
Prior transplantNo18.125.715.041.1b
Yes7.212.610.441.5b
For-profit dialysis unitNo18.527.214.442.6
Yes17.224.314.840.8
Dialysis unit affiliationHospital-based18.327.713.142.6
Independent16.023.213.239.4
Chain, 2–99 units19.025.718.943.0
Chain, ≥100 units17.624.8c15.041.2a
InsuranceMedicare parts A and B17.825.514.541.3
Medicare 1°, other12.518.711.436.7
Medicare 2°, employer group health plan12.419.911.438.0
Medicare 2°, other19.325.2b19.445.6
Health maintenance organization22.128.820.145.9
90-day wait for Medicare12.620.89.934.4
Other10.416.610.035.1
Conditions, last 28 dMyocardial infarction9.518.08.320.7
Cardiac failure15.825.313.131.5
Stroke16.028.813.126.6
Malignancy19.229.5b16.335.2
Pneumonia14.624.8b12.728.4
Septicemia22.831.822.239.1a
Number of conditions019.625.415.850.3
115.825.512.830.7
215.725.813.629.8
Cause of deathCardiovascular8.312.97.337.2
Infection9.019.38.817.5
Malignancy33.242.134.259.7
Uremia/withdrawal of dialysis81.994.972.285.5
Other15.724.111.541.9
  • Northeast (states): Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont; Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia; West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Parameter estimates are row percentages. P values <0.001 for all comparisons unless otherwise stated. “Conditions” refer to patients with Medicare parts A and B with hospitalizations containing the following International Classification of Disease Clinical Modification–9 codes in the last 28 d of life: myocardial infarction—410xx (1≤x≤9); cardiac failure—428xx; stroke—434xx; malignancy—140xx to 209xx; pneumonia—480xx to 488xx; septicemia—38xxx.

  • a 0.01≤P value <0.05.

  • b NS, P value ≥0.05.

  • c 0.001≤P value <0.01.