Table 3.

Odds ratios of primary outcome (withdrawal of dialysis and death in either a nonhospital or hospice setting), and of component outcomes, according to minority status in patients on dialysis dying between 2000 and 2014 (n=1,098,384)

VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Primary outcome (17.5%)
 Non-Hispanic white1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Minority0.42 (0.41 to 0.42)0.48 (0.47 to 0.48)0.55 (0.55 to 0.56)0.54 (0.54 to 0.55)
 Non-Hispanic black0.37 (0.37 to 0.38)0.44 (0.43 to 0.44)0.49 (0.49 to 0.50)0.49 (0.48 to 0.50)
 Non-Hispanic Native American0.57 (0.54 to 0.60)0.72 (0.68 to 0.76)0.70 (0.67 to 0.74)0.68 (0.64 to 0.72)
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.43 (0.42 to 0.45)0.42 (0.41 to 0.44)0.49 (0.47 to 0.51)0.47 (0.45 to 0.49)
 Hispanic0.51 (0.50 to 0.52)0.56 (0.55 to 0.57)0.73 (0.71 to 0.74)0.71 (0.70 to 0.73)
Dialysis discontinuation (24.9%)
 Non-Hispanic white1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Minority0.44 (0.44 to 0.45)0.50 (0.49 to 0.50)0.58 (0.57 to 0.58)0.57 (0.56 to 0.57)
 Non-Hispanic black0.40 (0.39 to 0.40)0.46 (0.45 to 0.46)0.52 (0.51 to 0.52)0.51 (0.50 to 0.52)
 Non-Hispanic Native American0.67 (0.64 to 0.7)0.81 (0.78 to 0.85)0.78 (0.74 to 0.81)0.75 (0.72 to 0.79)
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.50 (0.48 to 0.51)0.50 (0.48 to 0.51)0.57 (0.56 to 0.59)0.55 (0.53 to 0.57)
 Hispanic0.51 (0.5 to 0.52)0.56 (0.55 to 0.57)0.72 (0.71 to 0.74)0.71 (0.70 to 0.73)
Hospice (14.7%)
 Non-Hispanic white1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Minority0.52 (0.52 to 0.53)0.57 (0.56 to 0.57)0.63 (0.62 to 0.64)0.62 (0.62 to 0.63)
 Non-Hispanic black0.48 (0.47 to 0.48)0.54 (0.53 to 0.54)0.58 (0.57 to 0.59)0.58 (0.57 to 0.59)
 Non-Hispanic Native American0.56 (0.53 to 0.60)0.67 (0.63 to 0.71)0.70 (0.66 to 0.75)0.68 (0.64 to 0.73)
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.54 (0.52 to 0.56)0.50 (0.48 to 0.52)0.54 (0.52 to 0.56)0.54 (0.51 to 0.56)
 Hispanic0.62 (0.61 to 0.64)0.64 (0.63 to 0.66)0.79 (0.77 to 0.81)0.78 (0.76 to 0.79)
Nonhospital death (41.1%)
 Non-Hispanic white1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)1 (Reference)
 Minority0.60 (0.60 to 0.61)0.64 (0.63 to 0.64)0.70 (0.70 to 0.71)0.69 (0.68 to 0.69)
 Non-Hispanic black0.59 (0.58 to 0.59)0.63 (0.62 to 0.63)0.69 (0.68 to 0.70)0.67 (0.66 to 0.68)
 Non-Hispanic Native American0.78 (0.75 to 0.80)0.85 (0.82 to 0.88)0.84 (0.81 to 0.87)0.81 (0.77 to 0.84)
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.61 (0.59 to 0.62)0.60 (0.58 to 0.61)0.65 (0.64 to 0.67)0.64 (0.62 to 0.66)
 Hispanic0.63 (0.62 to 0.64)0.65 (0.64 to 0.66)0.74 (0.73 to 0.75)0.73 (0.72 to 0.74)
  • Parameter estimates are odds ratios from logistic regression models (with 95% CIs in parentheses). P values versus white <0.001 for all odds ratios. Model 1: no adjustment; model 2: adjustment for age and sex; model 3: model 2 plus adjustment for era, Gini index of county-level income dispersion, rural-urban continuum code, type of kidney disease, years of RRT, mode of dialysis, prior transplant, type of insurance, and dialysis unit characteristics; model 4 (population with Medicare parts A and B, n=818,953): model 3 plus adjustment for number of conditions in the last 28 d of life.