Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by race among patients with CKD stage 4

CharacteristicOverall Cohort, n=56,767aNon-Hispanic White, n=39,767Non-Hispanic Black, n=12,747Hispanic White, n=4017Hispanic Black, n=236
Median age, yr (IQR)73 (65–82)75 (66–82)68 (61–78)74 (65–82)75 (64–82)
Men, n (%)56,194 (97)38,618 (97)12,384 (97)3961 (99)231 (98)
Median duration of follow-up, d (IQR)1009 (442–1914)981 (426–1862)1113 (507–2052)1012 (402–1932)970 (252–1930)
Median eGFR at incident stage 4 CKD, ml/min per 1.73m2 (IQR)25 (22–28)25 (22–28)25 (21–28)25 (22–28)24 (20–27)
Medical comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes40,300 (71)27,584 (69)9356 (73)3190 (79)170 (72)
 Hypertension55,153 (97)38,453 (97)12,539 (98)3929 (98)232 (98)
 Congestive heart failure30,999 (55)22,241 (56)6587 (52)2055 (51)116 (49)
 Cerebrovascular disease22,275 (39)15,941 (40)4538 (36)1699 (42)97 (41)
 Coronary artery disease36,064 (74)26,778 (67)6732 (53)2425 (60)119 (50)
 SLE308 (1)152 (<1)133 (1)22 (<1)1 (<1)
 Liver disease4558 (8)2908 (7)1087 (9)523 (13)40 (17)
 Hepatitis C3322 (6)1445 (4)1568 (12)285 (7)24 (10)
 Chronic lung disease30,988 (55)22,730 (57)6289 (49)1874 (47)95 (40)
 Malignancy1692 (3)1127 (3)433 (3)119 (3)13 (6)
 HIV489 (1)133 (<1)317 (2)35 (<1)4 (2)
 Hemiplegia2551 (4)1481 (4)784 (6)265 (7)21 (9)
 Depression21,793 (38)15,125 (38)4710 (37)1859 (46)99 (42)
 Dementia2912 (5)1803 (5)661 (5)422 (11)26 (11)
Social and behavioral characteristics, n (%)
 Alcohol abuse/disorder8073 (14)4514 (11)2860 (22)646 (16)53 (22)
 Drug abuse/drug dependence3626 (6)1516 (4)1827 (14)260 (6)23 (10)
 Tobacco use20,317 (36)14,024 (35)5047 (40)1159 (29)87 (37)
 Married29,590 (52)21,684 (55)5491 (43)2290 (57)125 (53)
 Median systolic BP, mm Hg (IQR)138 (129–146)136 (128–144)141 (133–150)139 (130–147)142 (135–151)
 Median diastolic BP, mm Hg (IQR)72 (67–79)71 (66–77)78 (71–84)73 (68–79)75 (70–80)
 Median BMI, kg/m2 (IQR)30 (26–34)30 (26–34)29 (25–34)29 (26–32)28 (25–32)
Percent service connectionb, n (%)
 <10%41,431 (73)29,471 (74)8837 (69)2953 (74)170 (72)
 10%–49%8759 (15)5777 (15)2373 (19)574 (14)35 (15)
 50%–99%4476 (8)3129 (8)1046 (8)290 (7)11 (5)
 100%2101 (4)1390 (4)491 (4)200 (5)20 (9)
Median distance to VA center, miles (IQR)21 (9–49)25 (11–53)14 (7–41)14 (7–37)10 (5–25)
Live in urban setting, n (%)43,311 (75)28,177 (71)11,135 (87)3771 (94)228 (97)
Lowest socioeconomic quartile, n (%)15,881 (29)7621 (20)5609 (45)2478 (64)173 (77)
  • All P values were <0.001 for comparisons across the racial groups. IQR, interquartile range; BMI, body mass index; VA, Veterans Affairs.

  • a Note that this table is limited to veterans with stage 4 CKD who are either white, black, Hispanic white, or Hispanic black.

  • b Percent service connection denotes the amount to which disability and/or medical illness burden are associated with active military service time, and indicates additional compensation and medical services available from the VA.