Table 3.

Cox proportional hazards models for time to CKD progression and mortality

Progression to CKD Stage 5
Unadjusted CKD Stage 3aAdjusted CKD Stage 3bAdjusted CKD Stage 3, Only Patients Referred to NephrologycAdjusted, Death as Competing Risk, CKD3d
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black5.09 (4.88 to 5.31)2.60 (2.48 to 2.72)1.64 (1.56 to 1.73)2.64 (2.51 to 2.78)
Hispanic white3.26 (3.04 to 3.50)2.50 (2.33 to 2.68)2.13 (1.96 to 2.31)2.57 (2.37 to 2.77)
Hispanic black4.22 (3.24 to 5.49)2.97 (2.28 to 3.87)2.11 (1.60 to 2.77)2.75 (2.02 to 3.73)
Unadjusted CKD Stage 4aAdjusted CKD Stage 4bAdjusted CKD Stage 4, Only Patients Referred to NephrologycAdjusted, Death as Competing Risk, CKD Stage 4d
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black2.70 (2.60 to 2.81)1.85 (1.77 to 1.93)1.59 (1.51 to 1.68)1.89 (1.80 to 1.99)
Hispanic white2.07 (1.93 to 2.21)1.79 (1.67 to 1.92)1.64 (1.51 to 1.77)1.77 (1.64 to 1.90)
Hispanic black2.52 (1.99 to 3.21)1.75 (1.30 to 2.35)1.37 (0.96 to 1.96)e1.74 (1.32 to 2.30)
Progression to Doubling of Creatinine, CKD Stage 5, Dialysis, or Renal Transplantation Composite Outcome
Unadjusted CKD Stage 3aAdjusted CKD Stage 3bAdjusted CKD Stage 3, Only Patients Referred to NephrologycAdjusted, Death as Competing Risk, CKD Stage 3d
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black2.43 (2.38 to 2.48)1.72 (1.68 to 1.76)1.48 (1.38 to 1.57)1.74 (1.69 to 1.78)
Hispanic white1.99 (1.92 to 2.06)1.74 (1.68 to 1.81)1.87 (1.70 to 2.06)1.79 (1.72 to 1.86)
Hispanic black2.59 (2.27 to 2.95)2.06 (1.81 to 2.35)1.83 (1.38 to 2.42)2.14 (1.87 to 2.46)
Unadjusted CKD Stage 4aAdjusted CKD Stage 4bAdjusted CKD Stage 4, Only Patients Referred to NephrologycAdjusted, Death as Competing Risk, CKD Stage 4d
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black2.31 (2.23 to 2.40)1.68 (1.62 to 1.75)1.37 (1.30 to 1.44)1.84 (1.76 to 1.93)
Hispanic white1.91 (1.81 to 2.03)1.70 (1.60 to 1.81)1.44 (1.34 to 1.56)1.78 (1.66 to 1.90)
Hispanic black2.36 (1.91 to 2.92)1.74 (1.35 to 2.23)1.68 (1.36 to 2.09)1.69 (1.31 to 2.18)
Mortality
Unadjusted CKD Stage 3eAdjusted CKD Stage 3fAdjusted CKD Stage 3, Only Patients Referred to Nephrologyg
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)e1.03 (1.01 to 1.04)1.00 (0.96 to 1.03)e
Hispanic white1.02 (0.99 to 1.04)e0.96 (0.94 to 0.98)1.15 (1.08 to 1.21)
Hispanic black1.22 (1.11 to 1.33)1.05 (0.96 to 1.15)e1.37 (1.12 to 1.67)
Unadjusted CKD Stage 4Adjusted CKD Stage 4fAdjusted CKD Stage 4, Only Patients Referred to Nephrologyg
Non-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black0.78 (0.75 to 0.80)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)0.92 (0.89 to 0.96)
Hispanic white0.95 (0.91 to 0.99)e0.97 (0.92 to 1.01)e0.98 (0.91 to 1.04)e
Hispanic black0.97 (0.82 to 1.15)e0.99 (0.82 to 1.19)e1.04 (0.80 to 1.36)e
  • All results are reported as hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) unless otherwise indicated. All P values were <0.001 unless otherwise indicated. —, reference group.

  • a Unadjusted; death-censored.

  • b Adjusted for model 1: age, sex, entry eGFR, median BP, median body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, depression, hemiplegia, dementia, liver disease, chronic lung disease, malignancy, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, hepatitis C, smoking status, marital status, service connection, socioeconomic status, distance to Veterans Affairs medical center, clustered by medical center, using multiple imputation for missing data; death-censored.

  • c Adjusted for model 1, and duration of CKD, restricted to individuals who had a nephrology visit, followed from the date of the nephrology visit; death-censored.

  • d Adjusted for model 1, addressing death as a competing risk; reported as subhazard ratio (95% confidence interval).

  • e P value NS.

  • f Adjusted for model 1: age, sex, entry eGFR, median BP, median body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, depression, hemiplegia, dementia, liver disease, chronic lung disease, malignancy, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, hepatitis C, smoking status, marital status, service connection, socioeconomic status, distance to Veterans Affairs medical center, clustered by medical center, using multiple imputation for missing data.

  • g Adjusted for model 1, and duration of CKD, restricted to individuals who had a nephrology visit, followed from the date of the nephrology visit.