Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

CharacteristicACE Inhibitor, n=413ARB, n=414Combination, n=416
Age at randomization, yr, mean (SD)62.2 (11.2)62.7 (10.7)63.4 (10.0)
Sex, n (%)
 Women290 (71.3)288 (71.5)295 (72.5)
 Men117 (28.7)115 (28.5)112 (27.5)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Black4 (1.0)6 (1.5)2 (0.5)
 Other399 (99.0)399 (98.5)407 (99.5)
Diabetes, n (%)353 (85.5)351 (84.8)355 (85.3)
 Type 111 (3.2)11 (3.2)10 (2.9)
 Type 2331 (96.8)329 (96.8)337 (97.1)
Albuminuria, n (%)
 Moderate albuminuria291 (70.5)295 (71.3)304 (73.1)
 Severe albuminuria103 (24.9)109 (26.3)102 (24.5)
Smoker, n (%)
 Current96 (23.2)96 (23.2)95 (22.8)
 Former122 (29.5)103 (24.9)134 (32.2)
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)30.5 (5.6)30.8 (5.5)30.5 (5.4)
Weight, kg, mean (SD)84.3 (16.4)85.1 (17.1)83.7 (16.9)
Waist circumference, cm, mean (SD)105.0 (14.3)105.0 (12.6)104.7 (13.1)
Heart rate, min, mean (SD)75.6 (10.5)74.5 (10.3)74.0 (9.0)
BP, mm Hg, mean (SD)
 Systolic138.0 (16.7)138.2 (15.7)137.8 (16.8)
 Diastolic80.6 (9.4)80.0 (9.0)80.4 (9.8)
Fasting glucose, mg/dl, mean (SD)138.1 (46.4)143.2 (52.0)139.5 (47.6)
HbA1C, %, mean (SD)7.5 (1.6)7.6 (1.7)7.5 (1.5)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean (SD)70.2 (28.0)68.0 (27.7)65.5 (27.8)
eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)144 (34.9)155 (37.4)174 (41.8)
Serum creatinine, mg/dl, mean (SD)1.10 (0.73)1.14 (0.81)1.15 (0.59)
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, median (IQR), mg/g108 (55–302)110 (52–316)128 (57–325)
Serum potassium, mEq/L, mean (SD)4.49 (0.61)4.54 (0.56)4.55 (0.63)
Total cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD)180.1 (41.8)178.0 (38.9)176.0 (42.1)
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD)103.6 (36.2)102.6 (34.0)101.3 (33.6)
Triglycerides, mg/dl, mean (SD)154.0 (88.0)144.8 (77.1)146.0 (81.5)
Symptomatic neuropathy, n (%)62 (15.0)47 (11.3)55 (13.2)
Diabetic retinopathy, n (%)97 (26.4)88 (21.3)109 (26.2)
Previous cardiovascular event, n (%)94 (22.8)101 (24.4)102 (24.5)
Family history of cardiovascular disease, n (%)40 (9.7)42 (10.1)43 (10.3)
Medications before randomization, n (%)
 BP lowering346 (83.8)346 (83.8)369 (88.7)
  ACE inhibitor176 (42.6)176 (42.6)187 (45.0)
  ARB174 (42.1)174 (42.1)209 (50.2)
  ACE inhibitor or ARB317 (76.8)317 (76.8)342 (82.2)
  β-Blocker99 (24.0)99 (24.0)78 (18.8)
  Calcium channel blocker110 (26.6)110 (26.6)129 (31.0)
  Diuretic150 (36.3)150 (36.3)180 (43.3)
 Lipid lowering234 (56.7)234 (56.7)251 (60.3)
  Statin214 (51.8)214 (51.8)227 (54.6)
  Ezetimibe18 (4.4)18 (4.4)19 (4.6)
  Fibrate12 (2.9)12 (2.9)14 (3.4)
 Omega-3 PUFA33 (8.0)33 (8.0)42 (10.1)
 Platelet aggregation inhibitors161 (39.0)161 (39.0)170 (40.9)
 Acetylsalicylic acid142 (34.4)142 (34.4)151 (36.3)
  • ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; HbA1C, hemoglobin A1C; PUFA, Polyunsaturated fatty acids.