Table 2.

Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals from multivariable regression analyses of the association of sex (women versus men) with renal outcomes

ModelVariables Included in Regression ModelsESRD50% Decline in eGFR from BaselineDevelopment of CKD Stage 5 (eGFR<15 ml/min per 1.73 m2)
Model 1Clinical site, age, race/ethnicity, baseline eGFR, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio0.83 (0.72 to 0.96)0.85 (0.75 to 0.96)0.93 (0.86 to 1.02)
Model 2+Education, marital status, nephrology care, health insurance0.82 (0.71 to 0.95)0.85 (0.74 to 0.97)0.91 (0.82 to 1.00)
Model 3+Smoking status, physical activity, BMI, waist circumference0.88 (0.75 to 1.04)0.91 (0.79 to 1.05)0.94 (0.85 to 1.04)
Model 4+Systolic BP, diabetes, CVD, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, albumin, and hemoglobin0.74 (0.61 to 0.88)0.82 (0.70 to 0.96)0.89 (0.79 to 1.00)
Model 5+ACEi/ARB, aspirin, and statin0.74 (0.62 to 0.89)0.83 (0.70 to 0.97)0.88 (0.78 to 0.98)
Model 6+Serum FGF23, calcium, and phosphorus0.72 (0.59 to 0.87)0.82 (0.69 to 0.96)0.84 (0.74 to 0.94)
Model 6P value for interaction sex × age0.010.030.53
Age strata–specific multivariable regression analyses
 Model 621–45 yr1.15 (0.81 to 1.64)1.34 (0.96 to 1.86)
 Model 646–60 yr0.69 (0.52 to 0.90)0.78 (0.62 to 0.99)
 Model 661–74 yr0.58 (0.44 to 0.76)0.73 (0.57 to 0.93)
  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; FGF23, fibroblast growth factor 23; —, not applicable.