Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants by sex

Characteristics Women, n=1778Men, n=2161
Demographic characteristics
 Age, yr, mean (SD)58.0 (11.2)58.3 (10.9)
 Age categories, yr, n (%)
  21–45242 (13.9)296 (14.0)
  46–60664 (38.1)777 (36.8)
  61–74836 (48.0)1039 (49.2)
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)
  Non-Hispanic white656 (36.9)a982 (45.4)
  Non-Hispanic black844 (47.5)806 (37.3)
  Hispanic209 (11.8)288 (13.3)
  Other69 (3.9)85 (3.9)
 Annual household income <$20,000, n (%)660 (37.1)a580 (26.8)
 Less than high school education, n (%)400 (22.5)a428 (19.9)
 Marital status n (%)
  Married/living with partner752 (42.3)a1406 (65.1)
  Single305 (17.2)263 (12.2)
  Widowed/divorced721 (40.6)492 (22.8)
 Health insurance, n (%)1456 (81.9)1782 (82.5)
 Ever seen a nephrologist (yes versus no), n (%)1084 (61.0)a1517 (70.2)
Clinical and laboratory characteristics
 Hypertension, n (%)1499 (84.3)a1892 (87.6)
 Diabetes, n (%)844 (47.5)1064 (49.2)
 Cardiovascular disease, n (%)514 (28.9)802 (37.1)
 Family history of CHD, n (%)932 (65.3)a998 (57.7)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg, mean (SD)128.3 (22.7)128.6 (21.7)
 Glycated hemoglobin, %, median (IQR)6.1 (5.6–7.3)6.2 (5.6–7.4)
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD)107.4 (36.5)a98.9 (34.4)
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD)42.7 (12.2)a53.4 (17.0)
 Triglycerides, mg/dl, median (IQR)122.5 (86–171)a133 (93–197)
 FGF23, RU/ml, median (IQR)165.8 (105.0–276.8)a132.0 (90.7–207.9)
 Calcium, mg/dl, mean (SD)9.3 (0.5)a9.2 (0.4)
 Phosphate, mg/dl, mean (SD)3.9 (0.6)a3.6 (0.7)
 Albumin, g/dl, mean (SD)3.9 (0.45)4.0 (0.49)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl, mean (SD)13.1 (1.8)a12.0 (1.5)
Kidney function measurements
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean (SD)43.9 (17.4)45.7 (16.4)
 eGFR categories, ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)
  <30405 (22.8)a402 (18.6%
  30 to <45627 (35.3)712 (32.9)
  45 to <60441 (24.8)650 (30.1)
  ≥60305 (17.2)397 (18.4)
 Urine protein, mg/24 h, median (IQR)113 (60–599)a268 (89–1200)
Lifestyle factors
 Never smoker, n (%)944 (53.1)a837 (38.7)
 Physical activity 30 min/d at least 5 d/wk, n (%)817 (46.0)a1185 (54.8)
 Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)33.2 (9.2)a31.1 (6.4)
 Body mass index categories, kg/m2, n (%)
  <25287 (13.3)a343 (19.3)
  25–<30753 (35.0)a372 (20.9)
  30–<35632 (29.4)a393 (22.1)
  ≥35481 (22.3)a668 (37.6)
 Waist circumference, cm, mean (SD)106.5 (15.9)a105.1 (19.4)
 Ideal waist circumference, men <102 cm and women <88 cm, n (%)358 (20.4)a928 (43.6)
Medications, n (%)
 ACE inhibitor or ARB1123 (63.7)a1566 (72.9)
 Aspirin705 (40.0)a972 (45.3)
 Statin922 (52.3)a1231 (57.3)
Achievement of guideline-recommended goals, n (%)
 BP<130/80 mm Hg904 (51)1054 (49.1)
 LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl834 (47.1)a1233 (57.3)
 Hemoglobin A1c <7%1172 (69.3)1411 (68.3)
  • CHD, coronary heart disease; IQR, interquartile range; FGF23, fibroblast growth factor 23; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; hemoglobin A1c, glycated hemoglobin.

  • a P<0.05.