Table 1.

Index hospitalization characteristics, stratified by number of hospitalizations in the prior 365 days

CharacteristicNumber of Hospitalizations in the Past 365 d
N or Meana% or SDN or Mean% or SDN or Mean% or SD
Age at index discharge, yrb65.814.
 Native American35231.2%27701.2%16441.2%
Medicaid at index discharge130,13545.9%122,58653.3%92,06166.6%
Prior transplant18,1986.4%15,5906.8%10,4047.5%
Total time with ESRD, yrb4.
Dialysis vintage, yrb2.
Dialysis access at index discharge
 Dialysis catheter88,15431.1%59,17725.7%37,45727.1%
Elixhauser: readmission scoreb502473188920
Length of stay, db6.
High-risk index hospitalizations (by principal diagnosis)
 HIV infection3880.1%3930.2%4370.3%
 Other liver diseases12340.4%15410.7%16421.2%
 SLE and connective tissue disorders2040.1%1830.1%1980.1%
Facility characteristics
 Large dialysis organization203,11371.7%164,55371.6%99,56172.0%
 Dialysis facility, for profit247,78787.5%201,90987.8%121,54687.9%
 Dialysis facility, hospital-based13,2004.7%99744.3%60174.4%
 Patient: RN >7126,50044.7%104,26345.4%63,84346.2%
No. of patients at facility
Population in zip codeb31,39017,00831,81517,22132,44117,281
Median household income in zip codeb$50,429$19,931$50,174$19,944$49,351$19,517
Median household rent in zip codeb$891$286$896$283$901$274
% Below poverty line in zip codeb18%10%18%10%19%10%
% Unemployed in zip codeb10%5%11%5%11%5%
% Less than high school education in zip codeb16%10%16%10%17%10%
Urban zip code253,08689.4%208,88990.9%129,15093.4%
  • This table has been truncated for readability. See Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B1 for the full table. See Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B2 for standardized mean differences. AVF, arteriovenous fistula; AVG, arteriovenous graft; RN, registered nurse.

  • a For categorical variables, we show the number (N) and column percentage. For continuous variables, we show the mean and SD.

  • b Continuous variable. Although we show continuous summary statistics here, our primary model converted all continuous variables into categorical variables (Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B1 shows the break points).