Table 1.

Index hospitalization characteristics, stratified by number of hospitalizations in the prior 365 days

CharacteristicNumber of Hospitalizations in the Past 365 d
0–12–4≥5
(n=283,231)(n=229,844)(n=138,311)
N or Meana% or SDN or Mean% or SDN or Mean% or SD
Age at index discharge, yrb65.814.164.114.257.615.3
Sex
 Women133,64847.2%116,55650.7%72,79252.6%
 Men149,58352.8%113,28849.3%65,51947.4%
Race
 Native American35231.2%27701.2%16441.2%
 Asian10,9783.9%72923.2%31762.3%
 Black98,40834.7%87,85738.2%63,30345.8%
 White169,88060.0%131,57257.2%69,96850.6%
 Other4420.2%3530.2%2200.2%
Hispanic39,94114.1%33,02314.4%19,19113.9%
Medicaid at index discharge130,13545.9%122,58653.3%92,06166.6%
Prior transplant18,1986.4%15,5906.8%10,4047.5%
Total time with ESRD, yrb4.65.15.24.95.44.6
Dialysis vintage, yrb2.62.63.02.43.02.1
Dialysis access at index discharge
 Dialysis catheter88,15431.1%59,17725.7%37,45727.1%
 AVF145,00851.2%121,17052.7%68,87049.8%
 AVG50,06917.7%49,49721.5%31,98423.1%
Elixhauser: readmission scoreb502473188920
Length of stay, db6.38.45.95.75.75.7
High-risk index hospitalizations (by principal diagnosis)
 HIV infection3880.1%3930.2%4370.3%
 Hepatitis2260.1%3590.2%5800.4%
 Other liver diseases12340.4%15410.7%16421.2%
 SLE and connective tissue disorders2040.1%1830.1%1980.1%
Facility characteristics
 Large dialysis organization203,11371.7%164,55371.6%99,56172.0%
 Dialysis facility, for profit247,78787.5%201,90987.8%121,54687.9%
 Dialysis facility, hospital-based13,2004.7%99744.3%60174.4%
 Patient: RN >7126,50044.7%104,26345.4%63,84346.2%
No. of patients at facility
 0–5051,09618.0%39,05217.0%21,05015.2%
 >50–100117,22341.4%95,41241.5%57,31141.4%
 >100–15072,79625.7%60,33126.2%37,45627.1%
 >15042,11614.9%35,04915.2%22,49416.3%
Population in zip codeb31,39017,00831,81517,22132,44117,281
Median household income in zip codeb$50,429$19,931$50,174$19,944$49,351$19,517
Median household rent in zip codeb$891$286$896$283$901$274
% Below poverty line in zip codeb18%10%18%10%19%10%
% Unemployed in zip codeb10%5%11%5%11%5%
% Less than high school education in zip codeb16%10%16%10%17%10%
Urban zip code253,08689.4%208,88990.9%129,15093.4%
  • This table has been truncated for readability. See Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B1 for the full table. See Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B2 for standardized mean differences. AVF, arteriovenous fistula; AVG, arteriovenous graft; RN, registered nurse.

  • a For categorical variables, we show the number (N) and column percentage. For continuous variables, we show the mean and SD.

  • b Continuous variable. Although we show continuous summary statistics here, our primary model converted all continuous variables into categorical variables (Supplemental Appendix 2, Table B1 shows the break points).