Table 1.

Pharmacologic approaches targeting mitochondria for kidney injury

DrugsPathway/TargetProcessEffectSpeciesReference
AntracyclinesAkt/mTORC/HIF-1α pathwayEnergy pathwayAmeliorate injuryAnimals67
β-glucanAkt/mTORC/HIF-1α pathwayEnergy pathwayAmeliorate injuryAnimals23
AICARAMPK/Sirt1–6 pathwayEnergy pathwayDecrease tubular damageAnimals68,69
FormoterolPGC1αBiogenesisRestore renal functionAnimals78
LY344864PGC1αBiogenesisImprove renal functionAnimals79
MA-5Mitofilin/Mic60BiogenesisDecrease plasma BUNHumans97,98
LevosimendanMitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channelsBiogenesisRestore renal functionHumans100
Bendavia (SS-31)AntioxidationReduced serum creatinine and BUNHumans8082
Mito QChain-breaking antioxidant ubiquinolAntioxidationImprove renal functionHumans83
Mdivi-1Drp1Fusion and fissionAmeliorate injuryAnimals53,87
Antymycin Ap53MitophagyProtect renal tubular cellsAnimals90
Ambra1ParkinMitophagyAmeliorate injuryAnimals92
Cyclophilin-DMPTProtect against renal injuryAnimals99
CsADrp1MPTAmeliorate podocyte damageHumans88,89
  • CsA, cyclosporine A; Drp1, dynamin-related protein 1; Mdivi-1, mitochondrial division inhibitor–1; MA-5, mitochonic acid 5; Mito Q, mitoquinone; MPT, mitochondrial permeability.