Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study participants (n=1706)

CharacteristicsCKD Stages 3–5 (n=791, 46.4%)Dialysis (n=418, 24.5%)Transplant (n=497, 29.1%)All (n=1706)
Age, yr
 35–49116 (14.7)85 (20.3)184 (37.0)385 (22.6)
 50–64278 (35.1)228 (54.5)240 (48.3)746 (43.7)
 ≥65397 (50.2)105 (25.1)73 (14.7)575 (33.7)
Sex
 Women337 (42.6)153 (36.6)184 (37.0)674 (39.5)
 Men454 (57.4)265 (63.4)313 (63.0)1032 (60.5)
Race or ethnic groups
 White547 (69.2)277 (66.3)390 (78.5)1214 (71.2)
 Asian81 (10.2)60 (14.4)44 (8.9)185 (10.8)
 Middle eastern30 (3.8)16 (3.8)18 (3.6)64 (3.8)
 Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander/Maori/Pacific Islanders18 (2.3)22 (5.3)13 (2.6)53 (3.1)
 Other115 (14.5)43 (10.3)32 (6.4)190 (11.1)
Education level
 High school graduate or less318 (40.2)161 (38.5)240 (48.3)719 (42.1)
 College/university458 (57.9)245 (58.6)250 (50.3)953 (55.9)
 Unknown15 (1.9)12 (2.9)7 (1.4)34 (2.0)
Marital status
 Single64 (8.1)62 (14.8)74 (14.9)200 (11.7)
 Married/partnered567 (71.7)279 (66.7)372 (74.8)1218 (71.4)
 Divorced/separated157 (19.8)74 (17.7)48 (9.7)279 (16.4)
 Unknown3 (0.4)3 (0.7)3 (0.6)9 (0.5)
Smoking status
 Current83 (10.5)26 (6.2)18 (3.6)127 (7.4)
 Ex-smoker357 (45.1)198 (47.4)215 (43.3)770 (45.1)
 Never341 (43.1)187 (44.7)256 (51.5)784 (46.0)
 Unknown10 (1.3)7 (1.7)8 (1.6)25 (1.5)
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes320 (40.5)151 (36.1)109 (21.9)580 (34.0)
 No471 (59.5)267 (63.9)388 (78.1)1126 (66.0)
Cardiovascular disease
 Yes209 (26.4)113 (27.0)73 (14.7)395 (23.2)
 No582 (73.6)305 (73.0)424 (85.3)1311 (76.8)
Cerebrovascular disease
 Yes58 (7.3)30 (7.2)24 (4.8)112 (6.6)
 No733 (92.7)388 (92.8)473 (95.2)1594 (93.4)
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <2020 (2.5)33 (7.9)18 (3.6)71 (4.2)
 20–25155 (19.6)126 (30.1)157 (31.6)438 (25.7)
 25–30281 (35.5)127 (30.4)181 (36.4)589 (34.5)
 >30302 (38.2)110 (26.3)123 (24.7)535 (31.4)
 Unknown33 (4.2)22 (5.3)18 (3.6)73 (4.3)
Prior cancer
 Yes149 (18.8)83 (19.9)119 (23.9)351 (20.6)
 No642 (81.2)335 (80.1)378 (76.1)1355 (79.4)
Prior lower gastrointestinal endoscopy
 Yes281 (35.5)112 (26.8)134 (27.0)527 (30.9)
 No505 (63.8)306 (73.2)362 (72.8)1173 (68.8)
 Unknown5 (0.6)01 (0.2)6 (0.4)
Daily use of antiplatelet agents
 Yes241 (30.5)148 (35.4)137 (25.6)526 (30.8)
 No550 (69.5)270 (64.6)360 (72.4)1180 (69.2)
Daily use of anticoagulation
 Yes67 (8.5)65 (15.6)26 (5.2)158 (9.3)
 No724 (91.5)353 (84.4)471 (94.8)1548 (90.7)
Types of dialysis
 Hemodialysis291 (69.6)291 (69.6)
 Peritoneal dialysis127 (30.4)127 (30.4)
Donor types
 Deceased309 (62.2)309 (62.2)
 Living188 (37.8)188 (37.8)
Daily immunosuppression use
 Prednisone40 (5.1)29 (6.9)451 (90.7)520 (30.5)
 Azathioprine9 (1.1)4 (1.0)52 (10.5)65 (3.8)
 Mycophenolate mofetil9 (1.1)3 (0.7)383 (77.1)395 (23.2)
 Tacrolimus1 (0.1)3 (0.7)305 (61.4)309 (18.1)
 Cyclosporine5 (0.6)1 (0.2)105 (21.1)111 (6.5)
Regular use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents
 Yes38 (4.8)203 (48.6)31 (6.2)272 (15.9)
 No753 (95.2)215 (51.4)466 (93.8)1434 (84.1)
  • All data are displayed as n (%). —, not applicable.