Table 6.

Multivariable association of severity of AKI and change (fold increase) in level of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio using an AKI versus matched non-AKI episode modeling approach (i.e., comparing only a single pair of pre- and post-study visits urine protein-to-creatinine ratios) overall and analyses that exclude receipt of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker or systolic BP level

ComparisonsFull ModelModel Excluding Receipt of ACE-I/ARBModel Excluding Systolic BP Level
Relative Risk (95% CI)P ValueRelative Risk (95% CI)P ValueRelative Risk (95% CI)P Value
AKI stage 1 between study visits (versus no AKI)1.03 (0.92 to 1.16)0.591.03 (0.92 to 1.16)0.571.00 (0.88 to 1.12)0.95
AKI stage 2 between study visits (versus no AKI)1.07 (0.91 to 1.26)0.431.07 (0.90 to 1.26)0.441.06 (0.90 to 1.26)0.48
AKI stage 3 between study visits (versus no AKI)1.32 (1.12 to 1.55)<0.0011.32 (1.13 to 1.56)<0.0011.29 (1.09 to 1.53)<0.01
  • ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.