Table 1.

Baseline characteristics for ICPi-AKI

VariableICPi-AKI (n=138)Controls (n=276)P Value
Age at ICPi initiation, yr67 (58–74)65 (56–73)0.36
Female, n (%)55 (40)105 (38)0.75
Race, n (%)0.15
 White116 (84)248 (91)
 Black10 (7)10 (4)
 Asian3 (2)5 (2)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension77 (56)171 (62)0.24
 Diabetes23 (17)47 (17)1.00
 CHF3 (2)11 (4)0.40
 COPD6 (4)36 (13)0.005
 Cirrhosis2 (1)15 (5)0.06
Baseline SCr, mg/dl0.91 (0.80–1.21)0.87 (0.70–1.06)0.002
Baseline eGFR, ml/min72 (55–89)83 (63–99)<0.001
CKD, n (%)44 (32)56 (20)0.01
CKD IV, n (%)9 (7)2 (1)0.001
Autoimmune disease, n (%)17 (12)30 (11)0.74
Malignancy, n (%)0.007
 Melanoma49 (36)82 (30)
 Lung36 (26)106 (38)
 Genitourinary23 (17)21 (8)
 Other30 (21)67 (24)
PPI, n (%)75 (54)92 (33)<0.001
 ICPia n (%)
 Anti–CTLA-4b44 (32)48 (17)0.001
 Anti–PD-1c127 (92)250 (91)0.72
 Anti–PD-L110 (7)13 (4.7)0.36
 Combo anti–CTLA-4+anti–PD-1/PD-L1d39 (28)35 (13)<0.001
  • Data are shown as median (IQR) and n (%). CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IV, stage four; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4; PD-1, programmed cell death 1; PD-L1, programmed death-ligand 1; Combo, combination.

  • a Denotes all ICPis ever received.

  • b Ipilimumab was the ICPi agent in 98% of those who received an anti–CTLA-4 antibody.

  • c Nivolumab or pembrolizumab was the anti–PD-1 antibody in 49% and 42% of patients.

  • d Ipilimumab/nivolumab was the combination therapy regimen in 75% of cases and 66% of controls.