Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with COVID-19 according to the severity of disease

CharacteristicsTotal (n=131)Mild/Moderate (n=101)Severe/Critical (n=30)P Value
Age (yr), mean (SD)63.3 (13.2)63.1 (13.4)64.3 (12.4)0.66
Sex, n (%)0.94
 Male75 (57.3)58 (57.4)17 (56.7)
 Female56 (42.7)43 (42.6)13 (43.3)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)23.1 (4.0)23.3 (4.1)22.6 (3.7)0.44
Current smoker, n (%)39 (29.8)32 (31.7)7 (23.3)0.38
Contact with COVID-19 patients, n (%)62 (47.7)51 (50.5)11 (37.9)0.23
COVID-19 patients in the family, n (%)34 (26.0)25 (24.8)9 (30.0)0.56
Primary causes of ESKD, n (%)
 Diabetic nephropathy35 (26.7)25 (24.8)10 (33.3)0.35
 Hypertensive kidney disease34 (26.0)24 (23.8)10 (33.3)0.29
 GN25 (19.1)19 (18.8)6 (20.0)0.88
 Polycystic kidney disease4 (3.1)1 (1.0)3 (10.0)0.04a
 Lupus nephritis4 (3.1)4 (4.0)0 (0.0)0.57
 Others29 (22.1)28 (27.7)1 (3.3)0.005
Coexisting disorder, n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease90 (68.7)65 (64.4)25 (83.3)0.049
 Diabetes mellitus30 (22.9)25 (24.8)5 (16.7)0.35
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease5 (3.8)4 (4.0)1 (3.3)0.99a
 Cancer2 (1.5)1 (1.0)1 (3.3)0.41a
 Hepatitis B infection11 (8.4)7 (6.9)4 (13.3)0.27a
 Hepatitis C infection3 (2.3)3 (3.0)0 (0.0)0.99a
Previous hemodialysis modality, n (%)
 Hemodialysis123 (93.9)94 (93.1)29 (96.7)0.68a
 Hemodiafiltration37 (28.2)26 (25.7)11 (36.7)0.24
 Hemoperfusion3 (2.3)3 (3.0)0 (0.0)0.99a
Previous hemodialysis access, n (%)0.10a
 AVF81 (61.8)64 (63.4)17 (56.7)
 CVC46 (35.1)36 (35.6)10 (33.3)
 CVC/AVF2 (1.5)1 (1.0)1 (3.3)
 AVG1 (0.8)0 (0.0)1 (3.3)
 Others1 (0.8)0 (0.0)1 (3.3)
Previous hemodialysis frequency (times/wk), n (%)0.11
 <337 (28.2)32 (31.7)5 (16.7)
 ≥394 (71.8)68 (68.3)25 (83.3)
Dialysis yr, median (IQR)2.6 (0.8–6.0)2.7 (0.8–6.0)2.2 (0.8–5.9)0.83b
Previous medication, n (%)
 ACEI/ARB45 (34.6)29 (28.7)16 (55.2)0.01
 Immunosuppressant7 (5.4)7 (6.9)0 (0.0)0.35a
  • P values were calculated by the t test or Wilcoxon test for continuous variables, and the chi-squared test for categorical variables, otherwise Fisher’s exact test was used when the data were limited. BMI, body mass index; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; CVC, central venous catheter; AVG, arteriovenous graft; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a P values from Fisher’s exact test.

  • b P values from the Wilcoxon test.