Table 1.

Biomarkers of inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infection

Biomarker
Hypoxemia
White blood cell count (variable) and differential
Lyphocyte counts (relative lymphopenia)
T-cell subsets and markers (e.g., PD-1)
SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNA)
IgM/IgG to SARS-CoV-2
Procalcitonin (often normal)
D-dimer (elevated)
Ferritin (elevated)
Lactic dehydrogenase (elevated)
IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7
TNF-α
Serum creatinine (GFR reduced)
Creatine kinase (elevated)/cardiac troponin I (elevated)
Liver function tests (variable transaminitis)
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (variable)
C-reactive protein (variable)