Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19

VariablesAll PatientsModerateSevereCritically IllP Value
N333144 (43.2%)133 (39.9%)56 (16.8%)
Days from onset9 (7–11)8 (6–11)10 (7–11)8 (6–11)0.12a
Age, yr56.3±13.450.9±12.558.1±12.363.1±11.0<0.001a
Male patient, %182/333 (54.7%)67/144 (46.5%)79/133 (59.4%)36/56 (64.3%)0.03b
Fever, %301/333 (90.4%)126/144 (87.5%)123/133 (92.5%)52/56 (92.9%)0.16b
Cough, %229/333 (68.8%)98/144 (68.1%)94/133 (70.7%)37/56 (66.1%)0.94b
Dyspnea, %190/333 (57.1%)71/144 (49.3%)85/133 (63.9%)34/56 (60.7%)0.05b
Diarrhea, %108/333 (32.4%)42/144 (29.2%)41/133 (30.8%)25/55 (49.1%)0.06b
Hypertension, %107/332 (32.2%)37/144 (25.7%)43/133 (32.3%)27/55 (49.1%)0.003b
ACEI/ARB history, %37/321 (11.5%)12/143 (8.4%)14/126 (11.1%)11/52 (21.2%)0.02b
ACEI/ARB11/260/126/85/6
Diabetes, %76/332 (22.9%)20/144 (13.9%)32/133 (24.1%)24/55 (43.6%)<0.001b
SPO2 (%)93 (91.0–97.0)97.0 (96.0–98.0)92.0 (90.0–93.0)89.5 (80.0–93.0)<0.001a
Systolic BP, mm Hg126 (115–138)124 (114–132)128 (116–141)135 (118–145)0.001a
Diastolic BP, mm Hg78 (72–86)77 (72–86)78 (71–87)79 (73–86)0.76a
Blood sugar, mmol/L6.6 (5.7–8.1)6.0 (5.4–7.1)6.9 (5.9–8.6)7.8 (6.3–12.4)<0.001a
CRP, mg/L44.1 (16.3–90.8)22.1 (7.5–45.3)58.1 (32.5–101.4)69.7 (42.9–119.6)<0.001a
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/h31.0 (18.0–58.8)27.0 (14.3–50.3)39.0 (22.0–64.0)31.0 (22.0–58.0)0.004a
ALT, U/L24.0 (15.0–38.3)20.0 (13.0–33.0)26.0 (18.5–39.5)29.0 (18.0–43.0)0.001a
AST, U/L31.0 (22.0–48.0)24.0 (20.0–38.0)33.0 (24.0–50.5)40.5 (25.5–62.3)<0.001a
HsTnI, pg/ml5.4 (3.3–14.0)4.6 (2.5–7.0)4.8 (3.1–11.7)11.4 (6.3–21.6)<0.001a
NT-proBNP, pg/ml139.0 (52.0–392.5)76.0 (23.0–152.0)157.5 (55.5–333.8)372.5 (155.3–758.3)0.002a
Serum albumin, g/L34.5±4.736.6±4.933.6±4.232.9±4.3<0.001a
BUN, mmol/L4.3 (3.2–5.7)3.9 (3.1–5.0)4.4 (3.2–5.5)5.9 (4.6–8.6)<0.001a
SCR, μmol/L70.0 (57.0–84.0)66.5 (56.0–81.0)69.0 (57.0–84.0)77.0 (60.0–89.0)<0.001a
Prothrombin time, sec14.1 (13.5–14.8)14.0 (13.2–14.5)14.3 (13.5–14.9)14.4 (13.8–14.9)0.004a
D-dimer, mg/L0.73 (0.40–1.33)0.47 (0.32–1.10)0.80 (0.57–1.33)1.25 (0.64–5.90)<0.001a
Neutrophils, 109/L3.79 (2.57–5.45)2.99 (2.14–4.13)4.06 (2.84–5.56)5.79 (3.79–8.59)<0.001a
Lymphocytes, 109/L0.86 (0.63–1.20)1.01 (0.72–1.44)0.78 (0.60–1.05)0.55 (0.43–0.80)<0.001a
Eosinophils, 109/L0.00 (0.00–0.01)0.00 (0.00–0.09)0.00 (0.00–0.06)0.00 (0.00–0.01)<0.001a
Monocytes, 109/L0.39 (0.28–0.51)0.41 (0.30–0.53)0.36 (0.26–0.52)0.38 (0.22–0.49)0.16a
Serum TNFα, pg/ml8.6 (7.0–10.7)8.1 (6.8–9.8)9.3 (7.6–11.6)9.3 (6.8–11.1)0.09a
Serum IL-10, pg/ml5.7 (5.0–10.2)5.0 (5.0–8.1)6.4 (5.0–10.4)8.0 (5.0–15.1)0.01a
Serum IL-6, pg/ml19.9 (8.0–45.4)13.2 (3.8–23.1)27.1 (11.8–60.0)32.8 (17.8–62.6)<0.001a
Serum IL-2R, U/ml669 (459–963)546 (455–743)766 (595–1050)1026 (378–1260)<0.001a
Proteinuria, %219/333 (65.8%)63/144 (43.8%)108/133 (81.2%)48/56 (85.7%)<0.001b
Hematuria, %139/333 (41.7%)48/144 (33.3%)52/133 (39.1%)39/56 (69.6%)<0.001b
AKI, %35/333 (10.5%)5/144 (3.5%)6/133 (4.5%)24/56 (42.9%)<0.001b
Renal involvement, %251/333 (75.4%)89/144 (61.8%)111/133 (83.5%)51/56 (91.1%)<0.001b
Death, %29/333 (8.7%)0029/56 (52.8%)<0.001b
  • Data are presented as a number and percentage or mean±SD or median (25th–75th percentiles); eosinophils are presented as median (fifth–95th percentiles). SPO2, pulse oxygen saturation; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; HsTnI, high-sensitivity troponin; NT-proBNP, pro-brain natriuretic protein, N-terminal; SCR, serum creatinine.

  • a Kruskal–Wallis test.

  • b Wilcoxon rank-sum test.