Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics

CharacteristicsNo ABMRh (n=168)ABMRh (n=56)P ValueHLA-DSA–Negative ABMRh (n=26)HLA-DSA–Positive ABMRh (n=30)P Value
Recipient
 Age at transplantation (yr), mean (±SD)49.2 (±14.9)47.6 (±14.6)0.4852.5 (±12.7)43.3 (±15.0)0.02a
 Gender (female), n (%)72/172 (42.9)25/56 (44.6)0.8212/26 (46.2)13/30 (43.3)0.83
 Ethnicity, n (%)
  White148/167 (88.6)48/56 (85.7)0.8323/26 (88.5)25/30 (83.3)0.80
  Black6/167 (3.6)2/56 (3.6)0.831/26 (3.9)1/30 (3.3)0.80
  Asian4/167 (2.4)1/56 (1.8)0.830/26 (0.0)1/30 (3.3)0.80
  Other9/167 (5.4)5/56 (8.9)0.832/26 (7.7)3/30 (10.0)0.80
 Repeat transplantation, n (%)28/168 (16.7)17/56 (30.4)0.03a6/26 (23.1)11/30 (36.7)0.27
Immunologic profile, n (%)
  HLA-DSA ever present54/168 (32.1)30/56 (53.6)0.004a0/26 (0.0)30/30 (100.0)<0.001a
  HLA-DSA at biopsy19/154 (12.3)18/55 (32.7)<0.001a0/26 (0.0)18/29 (62.1)<0.001a
  HLA-DSA at transplantation33/159 (20.8)19/55 (34.6)0.04a0/26 (0.0)19/29 (65.5)<0.001a
 Anti-HLA antibodies ever present87/168 (51.8)44/56 (78.6)<0.001a14/26 (53.9)30/30 (100.0)<0.001a
Donor
 Age (yr), mean (±SD)48.7 (±15.9)47.6 (±14.4)0.6550.8 (±14.8)44.7 (±13.6)0.12
 Gender (female), n (%)76/156 (48.7)30/53 (56.6)0.3212/25 (48.0)18/28 (64.3)0.23
 Living donation, n (%)33/168 (19.6)8/55 (14.6)0.683/26 (11.5)5/29 (17.2)0.73
 Donation after brain death, n (%)119/168 (70.8)42/55 (76.4)0.3120/26 (76.9)22/29 (75.9)0.73
 Donation after circulatory death, n (%)16/168 (9.5)5/55 (9.1)0.313/26 (11.5)2/29 (6.9)0.73
Biopsy
 Days post-transplantation, median (IQR)370 (93–928)361 (40–1059)0.25250 (16–708)361 (84–1777)0.30
 Context
  Indication, n (%)49/168 (29.2)36/56 (64.3)<0.001a18/26 (69.2)18/30 (60.0)0.47
  Protocol, n (%)119/168 (70.8)20/56 (35.7)<0.001a8/26 (30.8)12/30 (40.0)0.47
 eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2), mean (±SD)45.1 (±20.3)30.6 (±20.3)<0.001a25.8 (±16.6)34.8 (±21.7)0.09
 Proteinuria (g/g creatinine), median (IQR)0.13 (0.07–0.25)0.46 (0.19–1.78)<0.001a0.39 (0.15–1.36)0.78 (0.3–2.26)0.19
 Immunosuppression, n (%)
  Cyclosporin11/168 (6.6)7/56 (12.5)0.164/26 (15.4)3/30 (10.0)0.69
  Tacrolimus147/168 (87.5)46/56 (82.1)0.3220/26 (76.9)26/30 (86.7)0.49
  Mycophenolate mofetil155/168 (92.3)49/56 (87.5)0.2823/26 (88.5)26/30 (86.7)>0.99
  Azathioprine7/168 (4.2)0/56 (0.0)0.200/24 (0.0)0/28 (0.0)>0.99
  mTOR inhibitor8/168 (4.8)6/56 (10.7)0.113/26 (11.5)3/30 (10.0)>0.99
  Corticosteroids141/168 (83.9)52/56 (92.9)0.0924/26 (92.3)28/30 (93.3)>0.99
 Treatment after ABMRh diagnosis, n (%)18/26 (69.2%)18/30 (60.0%)0.47
  Corticosteroids17/18 (94.4%)16/18 (88.9%)>0.99
  Anti-thymocyte globulin3/18 (16.7%)2/18 (11.1%)>0.99
  Intravenous Ig2/18 (11.1%)8/18 (44.4%)0.03a
  Plasmapheresis4/18 (22.2%)9/18 (50.0%)0.08
  Rituximab2/18 (11.1%)5/18 (27.8%)0.21
  Eculizumab0/18 (0.0%)1/18 (5.6%)>0.99
Transplantation
 Delayed graft function, n (%)29/167 (17.4)19/55 (34.6)0.007a12/26 (46.2)7/29 (24.1)0.09
 Cold ischemia time (h), median (IQR)12.6 (7.9–16.9)13.0 (7.9–17.7)0.5111.9 (7.9–16.2)15.3 (7.0–17.8)0.30
 Warm ischemia time (h), median (IQR)0.3 (0.1–0.4)0.3 (0.1–0.4)0.770.4 (0.1–0.4)0.1 (0.1–0.2)0.77
 Immunosuppression, n (%)
  Induction therapy116/167 (69.5)44/54 (81.5)0.0921/26 (80.8)23/28 (82.1)>0.99
   ATG15/116 (12.9)7/44 (15.9)0.883/21 (14.3)4/23 (17.4)>0.99
   Anti-CD2598/116 (84.5)36/44 (81.8)0.8818/21 (85.7)18/23 (78.3)>0.99
   Other2/116 (1.72)1/44 (2.3)0.880/21 (0.0)1/23 (4.4)>0.99
  Cyclosporin27/168 (16.1)10/56 (17.9)0.764/26 (15.4)6/30 (20.0)0.74
  Tacrolimus139/168 (82.7)46/56 (82.1)0.9222/26 (84.6)24/30 (80.0)0.74
  Mycophenolate mofetil156/168 (92.9)51/56 (91.1)0.6624/26 (92.3)27/30 (90.0)>0.99
  Azathioprine2/168 (1.2)0/56 (0.0)>0.990/24 (0.0)0/28 (0.0)>0.99
  mTOR inhibitor4/168 (2.4)3/56 (5.4)0.371/26 (4.2)2/30 (6.7)>0.99
  Corticosteroids167/168 (99.4)56/56 (100.0)>0.9926/26 (100)30/30 (100.0)>0.99
  • Denominator numbers less than original group size indicate incomplete information. Percentage values may not add up to 100% due to rounding. IQR, interquartile range; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; ATG, anti-thymocyte globulin.

  • a Indicates significant P values for difference between groups.