Table 2.

Clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients positive for COVID-19 compared with patients negative for COVID-19 and a historical control

Outcomes, n (%)Hospitalization and Positive for COVID-19 (n=3345)Hospitalization and Negative for COVID-19 (n=1265)Risk Ratio(95% CI)Historical control (n=9859)Risk Ratio (95% CI) (positive for COVID-19 versus historical control)
AKI1903 (56.9)471 (37.2)1.5 (1.4 to 1.6)2479 (25.1)2.3 (2.2 to 2.4)
AKI stage
 1942 (49.5)2285 (60.5)1830 (73.8)
 2387 (20.3)94 (20.0)369 (14.9)
 3574 (30.2)92 (19.5)280 (11.3)
Need for RRT164 (4.9)20 (1.6)3.1 (2.0 to 4.9)93 (0.9)5.2 (4.0 to 6.7)
Type of RRT
 CRRT52 (31.7)5 (25)25 (26.9)
 PIRRT11 (6.7)2 (10)8 (8.6)
 PD16 (9.8)00
 HD85 (51.8)13 (65)60 (64.5)
Outcomes of the cohort with stage 3 AKI
 AKI stage 3 with renal recovery243 (42.3)63 (68.5)0.6 (0.5 to 0.7)179 (63.9)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)
 AKI stage 3 with in-hospital death299 (52.1)18 (19.6)2.7 (1.8 to 4.1)55 (19.6)2.6 (2.1 to 3.4)
 AKI stage 3 with RRT dependence32 (5.6)11 (12.0)0.5 (0.1 to 0.8)46 (16.4)0.3 (0.2 to 0.5)
Outcomes in the total cohort hospitalized during the study period
 Mechanical ventilation624 (18.7)126 (10.0)1.9 (1.6 to 2.4)486 (4.9)3.8 (3.4 to 4.3)
 ICU438 (13.1)a46 (3.6)b3.6 (2.7 to 4.8)323 (3.3)4.0 (3.5 to 4.6)
 In-hospital death775 (23.2)92 (7.3)3.8 (2.6 to 3.9)229 (2.3)10.0 (8.6 to 11.5)
 Discharged to NH492 (14.7)162 (12.8)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1436 (14.6)1.0 (0.9 to 1.1)
 Discharged home1650 (49.3)788 (62.3)0.8 (0.7 to 0.8)8108 (82.2)0.6 (0.57 to 0.62)
 Hospital length of stay (d)c5 (3–9)3 (1–6)P<0.0013 (2–6)P<0.001
  • CRRT, continuous RRT; PIRRT, prolonged intermittent RRT; PD, peritoneal dialysis; HD, hemodialysis; NH, nursing home.

  • a Data available for n=3341.

  • b Data available for n=1262.

  • c For these comparisons, Wilcoxon rank sum testing was used.