Table 2.

The laboratory findings of patients

Laboratory FindingsAll Patients (n=81)Presence of AKISurvival
AKI (n=41)Non-AKI (n=40)P ValueNonsurvivors (n=60)Survivors (n=21)P Value
White blood cell count (×109/L), median (IQR)12.20 (9.00–17.29)13.11 (9.88–17.81)11.60 (8.66–15.30)0.4113.05 (10.20–18.30)9.93 (6.40–15.13)0.05a
 >10, n (%)56 (69.1%)30 (73.2%)26 (65.0%)0.4346 (76.7%)10 (47.6%)0.01a
 4–10, n (%)24 (29.6%)11 (26.8%)13 (32.5%)13 (21.7%)11 (52.4%)
 <4, n (%)1 (1.2%)0 (0.0%)1 (2.5%)1 (1.7%)0 (0.0%)
Neutrophil count (×109/L), median (IQR)11.13 (8.14–16.02)12.49 (9.14–16.43)10.65 (7.80–14.42)0.3111.89 (9.33–16.87)9.22 (5.64–13.10)0.03a
Lymphocytes (×109/L), median (IQR)0.54 (0.34–0.74)0.50 (0.34–0.60)0.65 (0.34–0.88)0.02a0.53 (0.32–0.70)0.69 (0.42–0.94)0.10
 <0.4, n (%)24 (29.6%)13 (31.7%)11 (27.5%)0.0819 (31.7%)5 (23.8%)0.59
 0.4–0.8, n (%)39 (48.1%)23 (56.1%)16 (40.0%)30 (50.0%)9 (42.9%)
Hemoglobin (g/L), mean±SD122.1±22.8124.5±25.6119.8±19.50.36124.8±21.5114.7±25.20.08
 Anemia, n (%)29 (35.8%)14 (34.1%)15 (37.5%)0.7519 (31.7%)10 (47.6%)0.19
Platelets (×109/L), median (IQR)159.0 (100.0–225.5)145.0 (77.5–209.5)176.5 (122.5–268.0)0.03a153.0 (82.5–210.8)202.0 (138.0–271.0)0.03a
 <100, n (%)19 (23.5%)12 (29.3%)7 (17.5%)0.2117 (28.3%)2 (9.5%)0.13
Serum albumin (g/L), median (IQR)28.5 (26.1–31.0)28.4 (25.2–31.8)28.7 (26.2–31.0)0.8727.9 (24.1–30.4)29.0 (28.1–33.0)0.06
 <25, n (%)18 (22.2%)10 (24.4%)8 (20.0%)0.6417 (28.3%)1 (4.8%)0.03a
ALT (U/L), median (IQR)29.0 (19.5–45.0)32.0 (19.0–52.5)25.0 (20.2–39.8)0.4429.5 (20.2–45.8)24.0 (16.5–38.5)0.33
AST (U/L), median (IQR)33.0 (20.5–63.5)37.0 (28.0–59.0)29.0 (19.0–68.0)0.2733.5 (21.0–68.2)33.0 (20.0–54.5)0.38
LDH (U/L), median (IQR)523.0 (373.5–700.5)562.0 (382.5–688.0)504.5 (345.2–742.5)0.45558.0 (417.2–742.5)373.0 (274.5–618.5)0.01a
Total bilirubin (μmol/L), median (IQR)12.9 (8.6–20.6)12.2 (8.2–21.6)13.4 (8.8–20.6)0.8114.5 (9.8–21.7)10.3 (7.6–17.0)0.05a
sCr (μmol/L), median (IQR)80.0 (58.0–113.0)104.0 (74.0–188.5)65.5 (48.0–80.0)<0.001a85.5 (65.0–114.5)61.0 (43.5–82.0)0.02a
 Elevated sCr, n (%)24 (29.6%)21 (51.2%)3 (7.5%)<0.001a20 (33.3%)4 (19.0%)0.27
Cystatin C (mg/L), median (IQR)b1.26 (0.99–2.01)1.74 (1.22–2.44)1.06 (0.86–1.28)<0.001a1.32 (0.95–2.01)1.22 (1.05–1.82)0.96
 >1.55, n (%)23 (35.3%)20 (60.6%)3 (9.1%)<0.001a17 (36.2%)6 (31.6%)0.72
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2), median (IQR)83.2 (50.1–99.6)53.0 (27.0–85.8)96.0 (79.8–107.8)<0.001a78.3 (45.2–97.4)94.8 (64.5–115.9)0.06
 <60, n (%)26 (32.1%)22 (53.7%)4 (10.0%)<0.001a21 (35.0%)5 (23.8%)0.34
BUN (mmol/L), median (IQR)9.6 (6.4–15.4)12.5 (8.6–27.8)7.1 (5.5–10.6)<0.001a10.2 (7.0–17.8)7.3 (5.2–10.9)0.02a
Serum potassium (mmol/L), median (IQR)4.37 (3.88–5.01)4.50 (4.09–5.04)4.19 (3.78–4.82)0.164.48 (3.96–5.04)4.16 (3.76–4.60)0.18
 >5.5, n (%)12 (14.8%)6 (14.6%)6 (15.0%)0.969 (15.0%)3 (14.3%)>0.99
 3.5–5.5, n (%)62 (76.5%)31 (75.6%)31 (77.5%)46 (76.7%)16 (76.2%)
 <3.5, n (%)7 (8.6%)4 (9.8%)3 (7.5%)5 (8.3%)2 (9.5%)
Serum sodium (mmol/L), median (IQR)142.6 (138.0–146.2)144.4 (138.9–148.2)139.9 (137.5–145.1)0.10144.2 (139.4–146.9)137.8 (135.2–140.0)0.001a
 >145, n (%)28 (34.6%)18 (43.9%)10 (25.0%)0.0725 (41.7%)3 (14.3%)0.03a
 135–145, n (%)43 (53.1%)18 (43.9%)25 (75.0%)29 (48.3%)14 (66.7%)
 <135, n (%)10 (12.3%)5 (12.2%)5 (12.5%)6 (10.0%)4 (19.0%)
Serum calcium (mmol/L), median (IQR)2.10 (1.96–2.29)2.12 (1.98–2.26)2.09 (1.95–2.29)0.772.08 (1.96–2.22)2.24 (1.98–2.34)0.05a
Serum phosphorus (mmol/L), median (IQR)c0.98 (0.84–1.24)1.12 (0.84–1.48)0.94 (0.82–1.09)0.090.99 (0.86–1.32)0.92 (0.74–1.14)0.14
 <0.81, n (%)16 (21.9%)8 (22.2%)8 (21.6%)0.959 (17.0%)7 (35.0%)0.08
Serum uric acid (μmol/L), median (IQR)d201.0 (137.5–327.0)289.5 (184.8–448.8)164.0 (119.2–219.2)<0.001a208.0 (147.0–346.0)187.0 (125.0–259.0)0.28
Proteinuria at admission to ICU, n (%)e
 >2+11 (15.5%)6 (18.2%)5 (13.2%)0.7810 (19.2%)1 (5.3%)0.27
 ±1+50 (70.4%)23 (69.7%)27 (71.1%)37 (71.2%)13 (68.4%)
 Negative10 (14.1%)4 (12.1%)6 (15.8%)5 (9.6%)5 (26.3%)
Hematuria at admission to ICU, n (%)e
 >2+23 (32.4%)11 (33.3%)12 (31.6%)0.7520 (38.5%)3 (15.8%)0.09
 ±1+24 (33.8%)12 (36.4%)12 (31.6%)18 (34.6%)6 (31.6%)
 Negative24 (33.8%)10 (30.3%)14 (36.8%)14 (26.9%)10 (52.6%)
Proteinuria at hospital presentation, n (%)f
 >2+5 (13.9%)3 (15.8%)2 (11.8%)>0.995 (17.9%)0 (0.0%)
 ±1+26 (72.2%)14 (73.7%)12 (70.6%)20 (71.4%)6 (75%)
 Negative5 (13.9%)2 (10.5%)3 (17.6%)3 (10.7%)2 (25.0%)
Hematuria at hospital presentation, n (%)f
 >2+10 (25.0%)6 (31.6%)4 (23.5%)0.729 (32.1%)1 (12.5%)0.40
 ±1+17 (47.2%)9 (47.4%)8 (47.4%)14 (50.0%)3 (37.5%)
 Negative9 (27.8%)4 (21.1%)5 (21.1%)5 (17.9%)4 (50.5%)
ESR (mm/h), median (IQR)g40.5 (27.8–65.5)47.5 (32.0–72.0)35.0 (22.0–61.8)0.1038.5 (24.5–58.5)67.0 (31.0–91.0)0.02a
hsCRP (mg/L), median (IQR)h105.5 (50.8–142.2)109.0 (66.8–147.9)66.0 (36.1–140.7)0.10108.9 (58.8–149.4)66.0 (29.0–122.5)0.06
IL-6 (pg/ml), median (IQR)i59.0 (31.0–167.2)100.4 (36.4–265.6)36.8 (20.3–103.2)0.01a93.2 (35.5–214.9)31.8 (22.1–69.5)0.002a
Ferritin (μg/ml), median (IQR)j1386.4 (758.7–2207.8)1301.8 (758.7–2207.8)1484.8 (765.2–2229.8)0.621469.0 (831.3–2261.3)973.3 (649.7–2207.8)0.34
PT (s), median (IQR)16.3 (15.3–18.1)17.2 (15.3–18.5)16.0 (15.1–17.2)0.04a17.0 (15.3–18.2)15.6 (14.6–16.2)0.006a
aPTT (s), median (IQR)41.0 (37.2–45.5)41.7 (37.4–46.8)40.9 (35.9–43.6)0.3740.7 (37.0–45.9)43.0 (38.2–45.4)0.48
Fibrinogen (g/L), median (IQR)3.95 (3.08–5.56)4.08 (2.92–5.57)3.92 (3.10–5.55)0.883.86 (2.77–5.52)4.60 (3.42–5.62)0.21
INR, median (IQR)1.29 (1.19–1.48)1.40 (1.20–1.52)1.26 (1.18–1.36)0.02a1.36 (1.20–1.49)1.24 (1.08–1.28)0.009a
D-dimer (μg/ml FEU), n (%)
 >21.036 (44.4%)19 (46.3%)17 (42.5%)0.7332 (53.3%)4 (19.0%)0.01a
 5.0–21.019 (23.5%)10 (24.4%)9 (22.5%)14 (23.3%)5 (23.8%)
 0.5–5.026 (32.1%)12 (29.3%)14 (35.0%)14 (23.3%)12 (57.1%)
 <0.500000
cTnI (pg/ml), median (IQR)k62.6 (15.1–520.4)69.8 (18.8–320.8)52.4 (8.3–555.8)0.4967.1 (19.1–653.2)20.5 (3.9–167.4)0.02a
NT-proBNP (pg/ml), median (IQR)l992.0 (402.0–3589.0)1902.0 (617.0–5590.0)843.0 (320.2–2929.2)0.03a1021.5 (486.0–3634.5)992.0 (193.0–3808.0)0.74
  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; aPTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; INR, international normalized ratio; FEU, fibrinogen equivalent units; cTnI; cardiac troponin I; NT-proBNP, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide.

  • a P≤0.05.

  • b All patients, n=66; AKI, n=33; non-AKI, n=33; nonsurvivors, n=47; survivors, n=19.

  • c All patients, n=73; AKI, n=36; non-AKI, n=37; nonsurvivors, n=53; survivors, n=20.

  • d All patients, n=80; AKI, n=40; non-AKI, n=40; nonsurvivors, n=59; survivors, n=21.

  • e All patients, n=71; AKI, n=33; non-AKI, n=38; nonsurvivors, n=52; survivors, n=19.

  • f All patients, n=36; AKI, n=19; non-AKI, n=17; nonsurvivors, n=28; survivors, n=8.

  • g All patients, n=58; AKI, n=30; non-AKI, n=28; nonsurvivors, n=42; survivors, n=16.

  • h All patients, n=77; AKI, n=39; non-AKI, n=38; nonsurvivors, n=56; survivors, n=21.

  • i All patients, n=64; AKI, n=32; non-AKI, n=32; nonsurvivors, n=45; survivors, n=19.

  • j All patients, n=63; AKI, n=31; non-AKI, n=32; nonsurvivors, n=48; survivors, n=15.

  • k All patients, n=80; AKI, n=40; non-AKI, n=40; nonsurvivors, n=59; survivors, n=21.

  • l All patients, n=79; AKI, n=39; non-AKI, n=40; nonsurvivors, n=58; survivors, n=21.