Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients

CharacteristicsAll Patients (n=81)Presence of AKISurvival
AKI (n=41)Non-AKI (n=40)P ValueNonsurvivors (n=60)Survivors (n=21)P Value
Clinical characteristics
Age (yr), mean±SD66.6±11.469.6±9.363.6±12.70.02a68.2±10.462.0±13.30.03a
Sex, n (%)
 Female27 (33.3%)11 (26.8%)16 (40.0%)0.2115 (25.0%)12 (57.1%)0.007a
 Male54 (66.7%)30 (73.2%)24 (60.0%)45 (75.0%)9 (42.9%)
APACHE II score on ICU day 1, median (IQR)15 (11–19)16 (12–22)14 (10–16)0.02a16 (12–20)12 (10–16)0.01a
SOFA score on ICU day 1, median (IQR)6 (4–8)7 (5–10)6 (4–8)0.03a7 (5–10)4 (3–5)<0.001a
Median arterial pressure (mm Hg), median (IQR)93 (82–103)93 (82–104)92 (82–103)0.7990 (80–103)97 (89–104)0.16
Comorbidity, n (%)b
 Hypertension43 (53.1%)23 (56.1%)20 (50.0%)0.5830 (50.0%)13 (61.9%)0.35
 Diabetes mellitus19 (23.5%)11 (26.8%)8 (20.0%)0.4712 (20.0%)7 (33.3%)0.22
 Coronary heart disease17 (21.0%)8 (19.5%)9 (22.5%)0.7412 (20.0%)5 (23.8%)0.71
 Cerebrovascular disease11 (13.6%)2 (4.9%)9 (22.5%)0.02a6 (10.0%)5 (23.8%)0.11
 CKD3 (3.7%)1 (2.4%)2 (5%)0.621 (1.6%)2 (9.5%)0.16
Current smoker, n (%)c12 (16.0%)7 (18.4%)5 (13.5%)0.569 (16.7%)3 (14.3%)>0.99
Complications, n (%)
 ARDS77 (95.1%)37 (90.2%)40 (100.0%)57 (95.0%)20 (95.2%)>0.99
 Septic shock51 (63.0%)28 (68.3%)23 (57.5%)0.3244 (73.3%)7 (33.3%)0.001a
 Altered mental status39 (48.1%)19 (46.3%)20 (50.0%)0.7430 (50.0%)9 (42.9%)0.57
 Cardiac injury61 (79.0%)33 (80.5%)31 (77.5%)0.7451 (85.0%)13 (61.9%)0.03a
 Arrythmias29 (35.8%)17 (41.5%)12 (30.0%)0.2825 (41.7%)4 (19.0%)0.07
 Coagulopathy51 (63.0%)30 (73.2%)21 (52.5%)0.0543 (71.7%)8 (38.1%)0.006a
 Liver injury32 (39.5%)19 (46.3%)13 (32.5%)0.2028 (46.7%)4 (19.0%)0.03a
 Hypercapnia44 (54.3%)26 (63.4%)18 (45.0%)0.1037 (61.7%)7 (33.3%)0.03a
 Secondary infection47 (58.0%)26 (63.4%)21 (52.5%)0.3234 (56.7%)13 (61.9%)0.68
 Pneumothorax7 (8.6%)5 (12.2%)2 (5.0%)0.437 (11.7%)0 (0.0%)
 AKI41 (50.6%)34 (56.7%)7 (33.3%)0.07
Initial symptoms, n (%)
 Fever72 (88.9%)34 (82.9%)38 (95.0%)0.0854 (90.0%)18 (85.7%)0.69
 Cough63 (77.8%)33 (80.5%)30 (75.0%)0.5546 (76.7%)17 (81.0%)0.77
 Sputum33 (40.7%)15 (36.6%)18 (45.0%)0.4422 (36.7%)11 (52.4%)0.21
 Fatigue46 (56.8%)21 (51.2%)25 (62.5%)0.3134 (56.7%)12 (57.1%)0.97
 Anorexia26 (32.1%)11 (26.8%)15 (37.5%)0.3022 (36.7%)4 (19.0%)0.18
 Vomit8 (9.9%)4 (9.8%)4 (10.0%)0.975 (8.3%)3 (14.3%)0.42
 Diarrhea20 (24.7%)9 (22.0%)11 (27.5%)0.5617 (28.3%)3 (14.3%)0.25
 Headache9 (11.1%)6 (14.6%)3 (7.5%)0.488 (13.3%)1 (4.8%)0.43
 Myalgia15 (18.5%)6 (14.6%)9 (22.5%)0.368 (13.3%)7 (33.3%)0.04a
 Dyspnea55 (67.9%)29 (70.7%)26 (65.0%)0.5842 (70.0%)13 (61.9%)0.49
  • a P<0.05.

  • b Hypertension and diabetes histories were diagnosed based on self-reports from patients or family members. Coronary heart disease was diagnosed based the self-reports from patients or family members about the coronary angiography results or histories of coronary stenting. Cerebrovascular disease was diagnosed based on the self-reports from patients or family members about the histories of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular incidents and positive image findings. CKD was defined as abnormalities of kidney structure or function for at least 3 months.

  • c All patients, n=75; AKI, n=38; non-AKI, n=37; nonsurvivors, n=54; survivors, n=21.