Table 1.

Demographic data, pertinent clinical information, kidney sonogram details, and biopsy diagnosis of ten patients with COVID-19 and AKI

Clinical DataPatient No.
12345678910
Age, yr77606269764569645969
SexFMMMFFFMMF
RaceAAHHHCAACAAAAAA
DMII/HTN presentHTNDMII, HTNDMIIHTNDMII/HTNHTNNoneNoneHTNHTN
CKD statusNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDNo history of CKDUnknownNo history of CKD
Admission Scr, mg/dl8.10.81.20.91.07.40.77.84.51.9
AKI stage at the time of biopsy (KDIGO criteria)Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3Stage 3NA
Proteinuria, g/d1.54.7NA (urine dipstick: 300 mg/dl)2.40.95.71.45.02.87.6
Hematuria, yes/noNoYesYesYesNoYesNoYesYesNo
Pertinent serologies/laboratory valuesNoneCK>90,000, high LDH, low plateletsIgGλ band (weak)Positive anticardiolipin Ab (IgM)NoneHigh LDH, low haptoglobinHigh LDH, low haptoglobin+MPO titerSerum κ-λ ratio: 10.69None
Vasopressor use at time of AKINoYesYesYesNoNoYesNoNoNo
Peak Scr, mg/dl8.313.16.35.84.48.44.37.86.02.0
Risk factors for AKI (other than COVID-19)NoneHypotensionHypotensionHypotension+ vancomycinVancomycin+ piperacillin/tazobactamGemcitabineHypotensionNoneHypertensive emergencyNone
Kidney size, cm, right/left13/11.815/13.712.2/14.7NA15/14.69.8/10.39.6/9.311/11.38.7/8.711.3/11.4
Indications of kidney biopsySevere AKI, significant proteinuriaSevere AKI, nephrotic-range proteinuria, elevated CK levels and laboratory findings suggestive of TMASevere AKI, proteinuriaSevere AKI, significant proteinuria, and positive anticardiolipin AbSevere AKI, proteinuriaSevere AKI, nephrotic-range proteinuria and laboratory findings suggestive of TMASevere AKI, significant proteinuria and laboratory findings suggestive of TMASever AKI, nephrotic-range proteinuria, and +MPO AbSevere AKI, significant proteinuria, and elevated serum κ-λ ratioNephrotic-range proteinuria and AKI
Complications of kidney biopsyNoneNoneNoneNoneNonePerinephric and retroperitoneal hematomaNoneNoneNoneNone
Kidney biopsy diagnosisATN, features of healed collapseATN + myoglobin castsATNATN + chronic sclerosisATN + early diabetic changesATN + TMATMA + cortical necrosisCrescentic GN, ATNATN + chronic sclerosisATN + chronic sclerosis
Clinical outcome of the AKIPatient needed dialysis; AKI subsequently improved and patient came off dialysisDialysis dependent, patient diedDialysis dependent, patient diedDialysis dependent, patient diedNo improvement in kidney function; however, patient did not require dialysis during hospital stayDialysis dependent, patient diedDialysis dependent, patient diedPatient needed dialysis, but AKI improved with corticosteroids therapy; patient subsequently came off dialysisKidney function improved as outpatient, but patient deemed CKDKidney function remained stable during hospital stay
  • F, woman; M, man; AA, black; H, Hispanic; C, white; KDIGO, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; NA, not available/applicable; MPO, myeloperoxidase.