Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of hospitalized patients positive for COVID-19

Total Cohort (n=4610)Total Positive for COVID-19 (n=3345)Positive for COVID-19 with AKI (n=1903; 56.9%)Positive for COVID-19 and No AKI (n=1442; 43.1%)P Value
Sociodemographic data, n (%)
 Age, yr, mean (SD)64.4 (16.4)67.1 (15.3)60.7 (17.0)<0.001
 Age decile, yr<0.001
  <30113 (3.4)42 (2.2)71 (4.9)
  31–40189 (5.6)69 (3.6)120 (8.3)
  41–50311 (9.3)135 (7.1)176 (12.2)
  51–6055316.5)286 (15.0)267 (18.5)
  61–70779 (23.3)436 (22.9)343 (23.8)
  71–80771 (23.0)513 (27.0)258 (17.9)
  >80629 (18.8)422 (22.2)207 (14.4)
 Sex<0.001
  Female1569 (46.9)812 (42.7)757 (52.5)
  Male1776 (53.1)1091 (57.3)685 (47.5)
 Race/ethnicity<0.001
  Non-Hispanic White275 (8.2)155 (8.2)120 (8.3)
  Non-Hispanic Black1201 (35.9)771 (40.5)430 (29.8)
  Hispanic1247 (37.3)638 (33.5)609 (42.2)
  Other622 (18.6)339 (17.8)283 (19.6)
 Nursing home resident548 (16.4)399 (21.0)149 (10.3)<0.001
 SES, median (IQR) (n=3680)−2.2 [−5.3 (−1.1)]−2.1 [−4.9 (−1.0)]−2.4 [−5.7–(−1.1)]0.03
Clinical comorbidities, n (%)
 BMI, kg/m2 (n=4367)0.005
  <301797 (57.1)1069 (59.6)728 (53.8)
  30–35725 (23.0)388 (21.6)337 (24.9)
  >35626 (19.9)338 (18.8)288 (21.3)
 DM906 (27.1)569 (29.9)337 (23.4)<0.001
 CKD409 (12.2)287 (15.1)122 (8.5)<0.001
 CHF129 (3.9)87 (4.6)42 (2.9)0.01
 Charlson comorbidity index<0.001
  0–11094 (32.7)495 (26.0)599 (41.5)
  1–51993 (59.6)1237 (65.0)756 (52.4)
  >5258 (7.7)171 (9.0)87 (6.0)
Initial vital signs, mean (SD)
 Temperature, °F (n=4598)99.2 (1.6)99.3 (1.6)99.2 (1.5)0.6
 Respiratory rate, breaths/min (n=4599)21.6 (6.3)22.3 (6.8)20.6 (5.4)<0.001
 Pulse oximetry, %(n=4601)92.8 (8.0)91.7 (9.4)94.3 (5.4)<0.001
 Pulse rate, beats/min (n=4601)98.3 (20.4)99.1 (21.3)97.2 (19.3)0.01
Initial laboratory data
 WBC (K/µl), mean (SD) (n=4602)8.7 (7.0)9.3 (6.9)7.8 (7.1)<0.001
 Neutrophil (K/µl), mean (SD) (n=4602)6.7 (4.0)7.3 (4.2)5.8 (3.5)<0.001
 Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, median (IQR)5.7 (3.5–9.3)6.6 (4.1–10.4)4.7 (3–7.7)<0.001
 Procalcitonin, median (IQR)0.2 (0.1–0.7)0.4 (0.1–1.3)0.2 (0.1–0.2)<0.001
 Fibrinogen (mg/dl), mean (SD) (n=2297)649.0 (200.0)659.1 (210.9)631.8 (177.8)0.002
 CRP (mg/dl), median (IQR) (n=3429)10.8 (4.8–19.1)13.2 (6.1–22.4)7.3 (3.3–14.3)<0.001
 D-dimer (µg/ml), median (IQR) (n=2726)1.7 (0.9–3.8)2.2 (1.1–6.2)1.1 (0.7–2.3)<0.001
 LDH (U/L), median (IQR) (n=3715)403 (300–546)458 (336–637)350 (270–451)<0.001
 Ferritin (ng/ml), median (IQR) (n=2470)762.5 (384–1420)911 (490.5–1667.5)609.5 (296–1086.5)<0.001
 Proteinuria, n (%) (n=2590)<0.001
  <30 mg14 (0.8)a5 (0.4)7 (1.4)
  30–500 mg1761 (95.9)1128 (95.0)633 (97.5)
  >500 mg62 (3.4)55 (4.6)9 (1.1)
Hospitalization, n (%)
 ICU admission438 (13.1)382 (20.1)56 (3.9)<0.001
 Mechanical ventilation624 (17.6)569 (29.9)55 (3.8)<0.001
  • BMI, body mass index; CRP; C-reactive protein.

  • a Percentages are of the total tested for proteinuria.