Table 3.

Clinical characteristics of patients with AAV and active severe renal disease treated with CYC or RTX for remission-induction (n=225)

CharacteristicCYC n=161 (64.1%)RTX n=64 (25.5%)Std. Diff. (%)a
Age at diagnosis of severe renal involvement, median (IQR) yrb65 (55–74)69 (59–75)11.0
Male, n (%)86 (53.4)32 (50.0)−6.0
AAV, n (%)
 MPA83 (51.6)35 (54.7)6.2
 GPA78 (48.4)29 (45.3)−6.2
ANCA specificity (ELISA), n (%)
 MPO95 (59.0)38 (59.4)0.8
 PR366 (41.0)26 (40.6)−0.8
BVAS/WG at diagnosis, median (IQR)8 (7–10)8 (7–10)0.0
Renal limited disease at diagnosis, n (%)50 (31.1)21 (32.8)3.6
Rapidly progressive GN, n (%)69 (42.8)21 (26.6)−34.5
Alveolar hemorrhage BVAS/WG at diagnosis, n (%)27 (16.8)10 (15.6)3.3c
Biopsy proven, n (%)145 (90.1)52 (81.3)−25.3
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 Arterial hypertension119 (73.9)48 (75.0)2.5
 Diabetes mellitus38 (23.6)13 (20.3)−8.0
 Dyslipidemia59 (36.6)26 (40.6)8.2
 BMI>30 kg/m251 (33.6)27 (49.1)31.8
Laboratory findings
 Hemoglobin, mean (SD) g/dl9.6 (8.6–10.7)9.9 (8.9–11.1)18.4
 ESR>22 mm/1st h, n (%)88 (83.0)39 (76.5)−16.2
 eGFR at diagnosis of renal involvement, mean (SD) ml/min per 1.7 3m215.6 (7.2)17.7 (6.9)29.7
 eGFR at diagnosis of renal involvement <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)71 (44.1)24 (37.5)−13.5c
 eGFR at 6 mo, median (IQR)28.8 (16.3–37.6)30.5 (22.2–45.3)13.4
 eGFR at 12 mo, median (IQR)29.9 (20.5–41.5)31.5 (19.2–44.7)0.0
 eGFR at 18 mo, median (IQR)32.4 (20.4–43.1)33.2 (22.9–43.7)−4.3
 eGFR at 24 mo, median (IQR)32.6 (22.0–42.3)34.3 (17.7–52.6)8.2
 eGFR at diagnosis of who received PLEX, mean (SD) ml/min per 1.73 m212.5 (7.3)18.5 (8.3)3.7
 eGFR at PLEX start <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 n (%)28 (17.4)5 (7.8)−29.2
Remission-induction adjuvant therapies, n (%)
 iv methylprednisolone at induction remission95 (59.0)52 (81.3)57.0c
 PLEX therapy37 (23.0)14 (21.9)−2.6c
Maintenance treatment, n (%)
 Azathioprine64 (39.8)11 (17.2)−51.7
 Mycophenolate mofetil41 (25.5)5 (7.8)−48.9
 RTX5 (3.1)23 (35.9)90.9
 CYC15 (9.3)0 (0.0)−45.3
 Prednisone36 (22.4)25 (39.1)36.8
Prednisone dose, median (IQR) mg
 Month 6 (103 versus 40)10.0 (2.5–20.0)2.5 (0–7.5)−47.1
 Month 12 (80 versus 35)5.0 (0.5–10.0)0.0 (0–5.0)−30.6
 Month 18 (70 versus 29)3.3 (0–7.1)0.0 (0–3.3)2.3
 Month 24 (61 versus 28)0.0 (0–5)0.0 (0–1.5)−19.5
  • eGFR is estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology collaboration method. IQR, interquartile range; GPA, granulomatosis with polyangiitis; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

  • a Standardized mean differences.

  • b Treatment was started on average within 16 h of the diagnosis of severe renal involvement.

  • c Variables used in the propensity score.