Table 3.

Factors assessed at time of post-transplant risk evaluation associated with COVID-19 disease in patients with kidney transplants: univariate and multivariate analysis

Factors Associated with COVID-19 Disease in Kidney Transplant PatientsNo. of PatientsNo. of COVID-19–Positive PatientsOdds Ratio (95% CI)P Value
Factors associated with COVID-19 disease: univariate analysis
 Recipient characteristics
  Age, per 1-yr increment1216661.01 (1.00 to 1.04)0.15
  Sex
   Women439291
   Men777370.71 (0.43 to 1.17)0.17
  Ethnicity
   White994421
   Non-White222242.75 (1.63 to 4.64)<0.001
 Transplant characteristics
  Donor type
   Deceased donor1053641
   Living donor16320.19 (0.05 to 0.79)<0.001
  Prior kidney transplant
   No1084581
   Yes13280.88 (0.41 to 1.88)0.69
  Time on dialysis before graft per 1-mo increment1078661.00 (1.00 to 1.01)0.09
  Multiorgan recipient
   No1120621
   Yes9641.35 (0.48 to 3.79)0.57
 Time of risk evaluation
 Time from transplant to evaluation per 1-mo increment1216660.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.02
 Functional allograft parameters
  Recent episode of rejection
   No971541
   Yes245120.87 (0.46 to 1.66)0.68
  Serum creatinine per μmol/L increment1185661.00 (1.00 to 1.01)0.11
 Comorbidities
  Smoker
   No1060601
   Yes15660.67 (0.28 to 1.57)0.35
  Obesity (BMI≥30)
   No1043461
   Yes151203.31 (1.90 to 5.77)<0.001
  Diabetes
   No926351
   Yes290313.05 (1.84 to 5.04)<0.001
  Hypertension
   No28781
   Yes929582.32 (1.10 to 4.92)0.02
  Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease
   No1138531
   Yes78134.09 (2.12 to 7.89)<0.001
  Cardiovascular disease
   No1146651
   Yes7010.24 (0.03 to 1.76)0.17
 Maintenance immunosuppressive therapies
  Prednisone
   No368111
   Yes829552.31 (1.19 to 4.46)0.01
  Tacrolimus
   No510291
   Yes691370.94 (0.57 to 1.55)0.80
  Cyclosporin
   No841461
   Yes360201.02 (0.59 to 1.74)0.95
  Mycophenolate mofetil or mycophenolic acid
   No201131
   Yes996530.81 (0.43 to 1.52)0.51
  Belatacept
   No (CNI regimen)a1051570.61 (0.25 to 1.47)0.28
   Yes7061
  Azathioprine
   No1047581
   Yes15080.96 (0.45 to 2.05)0.92
Factors associated with COVID-19 disease: multivariate model
 Prednisoneb
  No293111
  Yes741551.67 (0.87 to 3.47)0.15
 Ethnicity
  White829421
  Non-White205242.17 (1.23 to 3.78)0.007
 Cardiovascular disease
  No970651
  Yes6410.20 (0.03 to 1.50)0.12
 Obesity (BMI≥30)
  No900461
  Yes134202.19 (1.19 to 4.05)0.01
 Asthma and chronic pulmonary disease
  No964531
  Yes70133.09 (1.49 to 6.41)0.002
 Diabetes
  No785351
  Yes249313.33 (1.92 to 5.77)<0.001
 Time on dialysis before graft per 1-mo increment1034661.01 (0.99 to 1.01)0.07
  • OR, odds ratio; BMI, body mass index; CNI, calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporin or tacrolimus).

  • a Three patients did not take either CNI or belatacept.

  • b The multivariable analysis was restricted to 1034 patients without any missing data for each of the variables included in the final model by the stepwise backward elimination.