Table 1.

Trial descriptors

Trial DescriptorAll Trials, % (IQR)Pharmaceutical, % (IQR)Nonpharmaceutical, % (IQR)
N484364120
Interventions per trial, median1 (1–2)1 (1–2)1 (1–1)
Phase
 Early, 1–2a112 (30.8)
 Late, 2b–4189 (51.9)
 Not specified63 (17.3)
Country of participants, n
 China224 (46.3)150 (41.2)74 (61.7)
 Europe143 (29.6)116 (31.9)27 (22.5)
 North America82 (16.9)69 (19.0)13 (10.8)
 Other57 (11.8)50 (13.7)7 (5.8)
Intervention, n
 Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine112 (30.8)
 Corticosteroids16 (4.4)
 Antibacterials20 (5.5)
 Antivirals71 (19.5)
 None of the above195 (53.6)
Exclusions, n
 Any CKD-related exclusion218 (45.0)182 (50.0)36 (30.0)
 Hemodialysis/peritoneal dialysis167 (34.5)137 (37.6)30 (25.0)
 Renal transplantation147 (30.4)122 (33.5)25 (20.8)
 Nonend stage CKD161 (33.3)130 (35.7)31 (25.8)
 3A26 (5.4)23 (6.3)3 (2.5)
 3B27 (5.6)24 (6.6)3 (2.5)
 487 (18.0)80 (22.0)7 (5.8)
 597 (20.0)89 (24.5)8 (6.7)
 CKD exclusion but unclear criteria63 (13.0)41 (11.3)22 (18.3)
  • Total for country of participants is >484 as some studies included participants from more than one category. IQR, interquartile range; —, non-applicable.