Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of patients infected by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2

Clinical CharacteristicsSARS-CoV, n=1670SARS-CoV-2, n=1040P value
Male sex, n (%)734 (44.0)560 (53.8)<0.001
Age, yr, mean±SD44±2038±18<0.001
Age in yr, median (interquartile range)41 (29–56)35 (22–52)<0.001
Creatinine, μmol/L, median (interquartile range)80 (67–97)71 (60–84)<0.001
Missing, %0.53.1
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean±SD83.8±25.1102.3±19.0<0.001
Missing, %a6.88.3
RRT, n (%)20 (1.3)0 (0)<0.001
 Peritoneal dialysis13 (0.8)0 (0)0.003
 Hemodialysis7 (0.4)0 (0)0.05
Platelet, ×109/L, mean±SD196±84229±75<0.001
Platelet <100×109/L, n (%)85 (5.1)5 (0.5)<0.001
Missing, %0.33.6
ALT, U/L, median (interquartile range)23 (15–39)22 (15–34)0.13
Missing, %0.63.5
AST, U/L, median (interquartile range)26 (19–39)26 (21–37)0.53
Missing, %51.553.8
Albumin, g/L, mean±SD39±542±5<0.001
Missing, %0.63.5
Total bilirubin, μmol/L, mean±SD9±108±5<0.001
Missing, %0.63.5
INR, mean±SD1.1±0.31.1±0.10.70
Missing, %11.746.3
CRP, mg/dl, mean±SD4.2±5.81.4±3.5<0.001
Missing, %23.16.7
ESR, mm/h, mean±SD32±3124±23<0.001
Missing, %45.949.7
LDH, U/L, median (interquartile range)300 (208–423)184 (156–223)<0.001
Missing, %3.910.3
WCC, ×109/L, mean±SD6.7±3.55.8±2.0<0.001
WCC <3.5×109/L, n (%)160 (9.6)88 (8.8)0.47
Missing, %0.33.6
Neutrophil, ×109/L, mean±SD5.1±3.23.7±1.8<0.001
Missing, %0.13.8
Lymphocyte, ×109/L, mean±SD1.0±0.71.5±0.7<0.001
Lymphocyte <1×109/L, n (%)927 (55.6)222 (22.2)<0.001
Missing, %0.13.8
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)277 (16.6)81 (7.8)<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)355 (21.3)144 (13.8)<0.001
Use of medications during follow-up, n (%)
 NSAID122 (7.3)26 (2.5)<0.001
 ACEI99 (5.9)21 (2.0)<0.001
 ARB4 (0.2)41 (3.9)<0.001
 Thiazide diuretics18 (1.1)6 (0.6)0.18
 Loop diuretics161 (9.6)31 (3.0)<0.001
 Potassium-sparing diuretics22 (1.3)5 (0.5)0.03
 Other antihypertensive drugsb230 (13.8)113 (10.9)0.03
 Antiplatelet135 (8.1)38 (3.7)<0.001
 Anticoagulants166 (9.9)38 (3.7)<0.001
 Oseltamivir145 (8.7)66 (6.3)0.03
 Ribavirin1511 (90.5)538 (51.7)<0.001
 Lopinavir-ritonavir168 (10.1)612 (58.8)<0.001
 IFN beta0 (0)330 (31.7)<0.001
 Antibiotic treatment1610 (96.4)377 (36.3)<0.001
 Antifungal treatment161 (9.6)2 (0.2)<0.001
 Corticosteroid at baselinec69 (4.1)0 (0)<0.001
 Corticosteroid during follow-up1427 (85.4)59 (5.7)<0.001
 Pulse methylprednisolone ≥250 mg daily,1076 (64.4)5 (0.5)<0.001
 Peak daily dose, prednisolone equivalent, mg, median (interquartile range)625 (625–625)37.5 (37.5–50.0)<0.001
 IVIG175 (10.5)3 (0.3)<0.001
Clinical outcomes in 30 d, n (%)
 Primary endpoint435 (26.0)55 (5.3)<0.001
  Death180 (10.8)4 (0.4)<0.001
  ICU admission330 (19.8)53 (5.1)<0.001
  Invasive mechanical ventilation62 (3.7)22 (2.1)0.02
  • All concomitant medications were represented as binary parameters. Percentages were computed on the basis of nonmissing values. INR, international normalized ratio; CRP, C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; WCC, white cell count; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; IVIG, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

  • a eGFR was estimated using CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation for patients aged above 18 yr.

  • b Other antihypertensive drugs included beta blockers and calcium channel blockers.

  • c Corticosteroid use at baseline referred to the use of steroid within 1 mo before the diagnosis of CoV.