Table 1.

Comparing outcome, comorbidity, and demographic variables dependent on detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

VariablesAll n=990ABn=734AB+n=256P Value
Male, n (%)579 (58.5)447 (60.9)132 (51.6)0.009
Female, n (%)411 (41.5)287 (39.1)124 (48.4)
Ethnicity, n (%)0.006
 White481 (48.6)381 (51.9)100 (39.1)
 Asian296 (29.9)201 (27.4)95 (37.1)
 Black142 (14.3)100 (13.6)42 (16.4)
 Other35 (3.5)24 (3.3)11 (4.3)
 Unknown36 (3.6)28 (3.8)8 (3.1)
Age, yrs, median (IQR)65 (54–75)64 (54–75)67 (55–75)0.482
IMD, decile, median (IQR)2 (1–5)2 (1–5)2 (1–4)0.096
BMI, kg/m2 median (IQR)27 (23–32)27 (23–31)27 (24–32)0.228
CCI, median (IQR)7 (5–8)7 (5–8)7 (6–8)0.024
DM, n (%)418 (42.2)288 (39.2)130 (50.8)0.001
Immunosuppression medication, n (%)155 (15.7)120 (16.3)35 (13.7)0.310
Symptoms reported, n (%)227 (22.9)111 (15.1)116 (45.3)0.000
Hospitalized, n (%)128 (12.9)57 (7.8)71 (27.7)0.000
Died, n (%)93 (9.4)66 (9.0)27 (10.5)0.463
Alive at the start of the second waven=700n=237
PCR+ during second wave, n (%)80 (11.4)10 (4.2)0.001
Immunosuppression medication, n (%)8 (10.0)1 (10.0)1.000
Symptoms reported, n (%)57 (71.3)5 (50.0)0.171
Hospitalized, n (%)34 (42.5)4 (40.0)0.880
Died, n (%)10 (12.5)2 (20.0)0.511
  • Antibody status determined during the first wave. P values from chi-squared tests for categorical data and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous data. Current use of immunosuppression medication or intravenous agent within a year of the start of the first wave. Symptoms reported compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Death by January 9, 2021. PCR positivity during the second wave is reported as a percentage of those patients alive at the beginning of the second wave, with associated presence immunosuppression, symptoms, hospitalization, and death reported as a percentage of those who are PCR+. AB, SARS-CoV-2 antispike IgGAM seronegative; AB+, SARS-CoV-2 antispike IgGAM seropositive; IQR, interquartile range; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation 2019; BMI, body mass index; CCI, Charlson Comorbidity Index; DM, diabetes mellitus.